The non-specific agglutination of human red blood cells (haemagglutinating activity) was reported in extracts of Caulerpa cupressoides by Ainouz and Sam-paio (1991). Thangam and Kathiresan (1991a) reported the mosquito larvicidal effect of C. scalpelliformis extracts against Aedes aegypti with an LC50 value of 54 mg/L. The same researchers also reported the synergetic effect of C. scalpelliformis extract with the synthetic insecticide 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (BHC) (Thangam and Kathiresan, 1991b).
Shen et al. (2008) investigated the immunomodulatory activity of a modified polysaccharide (obtained from C. racemosa var. peltata) called CrvpPS-nano-Se complex. After intragastric administration, it has been shown that CrvpPS-nano-Se induced the percentage of CD3+, CD3+CD4+, NK cells and the CD4+/ CD8+ value.
Purification and partial characterisation of a lectin from C. cupressoides was pursued by Benevides et al. (2001). This lectin agglutinated trypsin-treated eryth-rocytes from humans and various animals. The haemagglutination activity was more effective for human blood group A erythrocytes compared with B and 0 erythrocytes and rabbit erythrocytes.
Sixteen species of Indian marine green algae were screened for their hepari-noid-active sulphated polysaccharides by Shanmugam et al. (2001). Caulerpa species showed the highest activity, which is comparable with heparin. According to this report, Caulerpales contained 93-151 heparin units/mg.
Ara et al. (2002) showed that ethanolic extracts of C. racemosa exhibited hypolipidaemic activity and significantly decreased the serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in rats. Santoso et al. (2004) investigated the anti-oxidant activity of methanol extracts from Indonesian seaweeds. Among these seaweeds, it is reported that the extract from Caulerpa sertularioides had the strongest anti-oxidant activity.
Chemopreventive effect of C. prolifera extract against aflatoxin Bl-initiated hepatotoxicity in female rats was investigated by Abdel-Wahhab et al. (2006).
Sivasankari et al. (2006) proposed Caulerpa chemnitzia as a seaweed liquid fertiliser, since its positive effects on growth and biochemical constituents of Vigna sinensis were observed. Cavas et al. (2007) confirmed that C. racemosa could also be used as a biostimulator for the growth of Phaselus vulgaris seedlings. It might be speculated that this effect is due to the pigment caulerpin, which has been previously identified from Caulerpa spp. (Maiti et al., 1978). Root growth assays with pure caulerpin gave essentially the same results as assays with the known plant growth promotor indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The pigment resembles structurally this plant hormone and might thus mimic its activity (Raub et al., 1987).
In vitro nematicidal activities from C. racemosa, C. scalpelliformis and C. taxifolia were reported by Rizvi and Shameel (2006).
Paul and de Nys (2008) studied the possible use of Caulerpa species bioreme-diation in an integrated plant-animal tropical aquaculture. Marine macroalgae with high growth rates can effectively strip nutrients from marine aquaculture effluent. Because Caulerpa spp., as bloom-forming green tide algae, have high growth rates and are free floating, these seaweeds offer to be an excellent option for culture in settlement ponds, the most common bioremediation infrastructure in tropical aquaculture. Especially, since certain isolates of C. racemosa are consumed by humans as 'sea grape', it can be speculated that one aquaculture might provide two commercially interesting products - fish and edible algae. This would maximise profit and simultaneously reduce pollutants (Paul and de Nys, 2008).
The radical-scavenging and reducing ability of C. lentillifera and C. racemosa extracts were showed by Matanjun et al. (2008).
According to a recent study (Cengiz et al., 2008), a dried and powdered form of C. racemosa was proposed to be used as a low-cost immobilisation agent for bovine serum albumin, which is a model protein for protein immobilisation studies.
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