Antiviral Antimicrobial Studies

A considerable inhibitory effect of acetone and ethanol extracts of C. taxifolia against the bacterium Bacillus subtilis and the yeast Candida albicans were observed by Crasta et al. (1997). Anti-bacterial activity in marine algae from the coast of Yucatan, Mexico, was investigated by Freile-Pelegrin and Morales (2004). After dissection of Caulerpa spp. in apical, basal and stolon regions and extraction, they observed that stolons of Caulerpa spp. exhibit the highest anti-bacterial activity. In vitro anti-bacterial activities of C. racemosa extracts were shown against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria by Kandhasamy and Arunachalam (2008).

Anti-viral properties of a chloroform-methanolic extract of C. taxifolia were studied by Nicoletti et al. (1999). The inhibition of viral transcriptase enzyme activity and reduction of viral capsid protein p24 expression of feline immunodeficiency virus by the extracts were observed.

Potent anti-HSV-1 activities from Caulerpa spp. were reported by Lee et al. (2004). Ghosh et al. (2004) exhibited in vitro anti-herpetic activity of sulphated polysaccharide fractions from C. racemosa on TK- acyclovir-resistant strains of herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) in Vero cells without any cytotoxic effects. They also observed no anti-coagulant properties at the concentration of the IC50 value.

Anti-leishmanial activity in the crude extract of C. racemosa and Caulerpa faridii was reported by Sabina et al. (2005).

According to Wang et al. (2007), hot water extracts and the n-butanol fraction from C. racemosa exhibit strong inhibition against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and Coxsackie virus B3 (Cox B3). A sulphoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) could be made responsible for this activity.

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