Ultraviolet Radiation

GIS and Remote Sensing in a Nori Wrap

In the face of global change, spatially explicit studies or meta-analyses of published species data are much needed to understand the impact of the changing environment on living organisms, for instance by modeling and mapping species' distributional shifts. A Nature Editorial (2008) recently discussed the need for spatially explicit biological data, stating that the absence or inaccuracy of geographical coordinates associated with every single sample prohibits, or at least jeopardizes, such...

Kappaphycus Three Types

Long Line Seaweed Cultivation

Israel et al. (eds.), Seaweeds and their Role in Globally Changing Environments, Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology 15, 251-283 DOI 10.1007 978-90-481-8569-6_15, Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010 Flower E. Msuya is currently working as a Senior Researcher at the Institute of Marine Sciences of the University of Dar es Salaam in Zanzibar, Tanzania. She obtained her Ph.D. from Tel Aviv University, Israel, in 2004 and continued her research at the Institute of...

Future Potential Impact of Rapid Climate Change in the Region

Microflora Atmospheric

Analysis of Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs) predicts that the average SST in the North Atlantic will increase by 2 C by 2060, and that the impact is expected to be greater during the winter period (Chmura et al., 2005). Although this increase is expected to significantly influence the distribution and abundance of marine organisms in the Northwest Atlantic, the rockweed abundance in the Maritime Provinces could in part benefit from an increase in SST, especially the stocks...

GIS and Remote Sensing Phycological Applications

Acquiring GPS coordinates has become self-evident, with handheld GPS devices nowadays fitting within any budget, provided that accuracy requirements are not smaller than 10-15 m. Devices capable of handling publicly available differential correction signals like Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS, covering North America), European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS, covering Europe), and equivalent systems in Japan and India are slightly more expensive but offer accuracies between...

Future Directions and Research Priorities

THE QUEST FOR SPATIAL DATA IN SEAWEED BIOLOGY In its simplest form, spatially explicit seaweed data would refer to the availability of georeferenced species occurrences. While we discussed the practice of georefer-encing and dissemination of spatially explicit seaweed data in depth in the second section of this chapter, we briefly show a couple of examples to demonstrate the dramatic state of the current availability of this information. For instance, looking at a random Nori species,...

Biotechnological potential of seaweeds

Intensive Sea Weed Aquaculture A Potent Solution Against Global Warming Turan, G. and Neori, The Future is Green On the Biotechnological Potential of Green Algae Reisser, The Potential of Caulerpa spp. for Biotechnological and Pharmacological Applications Cavas, L. and Pohnert, Ecology, Science, and Religion Klostermaier, Nature and Resource Conservation as Value-Assessment Reflections on Theology and Ethics Roth, Global Warming According to Jewish Law Three Circles of Reference Glicksberg,...

Discovering Ecological Wisdom in Ancient Texts

Stung by White's and Toynbee's criticism, the monotheists began to reread and reinterpret their scriptures from an ecological perspective. They discovered a great many texts that appear to provide support for contemporary ecological thinking. A recent edition of a popular English Bible translation marks all texts that refer to nature in green - all in all about a thousand. Rabbi Sharon Joseph Levi sees an ecological command in the Talmud text God created Adam and led Adam through the trees in...

Introduction

The genus Caulerpa belonging to the Bryopsidophyceae consists of about 75 species, which are distributed worldwide in tropical and temperate regions (Fama et al., 2002). Caulerpa spp. are siphonous green algae with a unique cellular organisation. Despite the fact that members of this genus can reach several meters in length, the organisms are unicellular with giant differentiated cells (Menzel, 1988). In recent years, this genus has attracted much attention because of Caulerpa taxifolia, which...

Effects of Temperature Increases

Temperature is probably the most dominant rate-determining factor in biology ranging from subcellular to community-level processes, with direct and indirect effects on organisms' physiology, ontogeny, trophic interactions, biodiversity, phenology, and biogeography. Increases in temperature due to climate change have the potential to impact most marine ecosystems, directly through the impact on species physiology (growth, reproduction, etc.) or indirectly through impacts on ocean dynamics...

Other Potential Climate Change Effects in the Oceans

Apart from temperature and pH, oceans are expected to alter in several other ways due to the current global climate change. Climate change is predicted to influence oceanographic patterns and conditions such as current direction and velocity, depth of stratification, salinity (fresher in the higher latitudes and more salty in the subtropics), and the oxygen concentration of the ventilated thermocline (IPCC, 2007). Climate change, for instance, is predicted to modify coastal upwelling either by...

Kunshan gao1 and juntian xu2

1State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005, China 2Key Lab of Marine Biotechnology of Jiangsu Province, Huaihai Institute of Technology, Lianyungang, 222005, China Solar visible radiation (400-700 nm, photosynthetically active radiation, PAR) drives photosynthesis and, therefore, is indispensable for all forms of life. In aquatic ecosystems, photosynthetic carbon fixation contributes to nearly 50 of the global primary production (Behrenfeld et al.,...

References

Ang, P.O., Sharp, G.J. and Semple, R.E. (1993) Changes in the population structure of Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis due to mechanical harvesting. Hydrobiologia 260 321-326. Baardseth, E. (1970) Synopsis of biological data on knobbed wrack, Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis. FAO Fish. Synop. 38 41 pp. Berecibar, E., Ben-Hamadou, R., Tavares, M. and Santos, R. (2004) Long-term change in the phytogeo-graphy of the Portuguese continental coast. pdf. Last accessed 2009. Black, R. and...

Biodata of Ugarte RA Craigie JS and Critchley AT authors of Fucoid Flora of the Rocky Intertidal of the Canadian

Ugarte graduated as Marine Biologist from the Universidad de Concepci n in Chile in 1982. He worked on the establishment of Gracilaria farms in southern Chile until 1984 and later joined the laboratory of Dr. Bernab Santelices at the Universidad Cat lica de Chile in Santiago, where he worked on applied phycology until 1988. Later that year, he traveled to Canada for a training program on resource management with the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO), under the direction of...

Negative Impacts Of Antithamnionella Spirographidis On Biodiversity And Humans

Bekhoffer, Y.G. (1996) Recycling and the Halacha. Tehumin 16 296-302. David, S. (2006) Cutting down fruit trees to settle disputes between neighbors. Tehumin 26 286-292. Ferstenfeld, M. (2002) The environment in Jewish tradition - a sustainable world, Jerusalem. Moreshet Hamishpat B-Isrel (in Hebrew). Rakover, N. (1994) The environment - ideological and legal aspects, Jersualem. Moreshet Hamishpat B-Isrel (in Hebrew). Ralbag, M. (2003) Neighborly damage - noise, visual damage and humidity....

Microalgae as Second Generation Energy Plants

Microalgae Raceway Pond

The use of microalgae for the production of biofuels has many ecological and economical advantages. First of all, microalgae show a much higher efficiency in converting solar energy to biomass. From the biomass of corn grown on one hectare, about 2,000 m3 biogas (methane) can be obtained however, biomass of microalgae grown on the equivalent area produces about 200,000 m3 (Solarbiofuels 2008). In microalgal biomass, the percentage of compounds suitable for the production of biofuels (e.g.,...

Baba Batra A Comment on the Order of the Tract

We will present a specific Mishnaic doctrine from the Baba Batra tract, which we feel may be considered a source for the discourse on preventing atmospheric pollution. Prior to this, however, we should delineate some guidelines for a simple and fundamental idea that arises from the organizing method of the tract in general. As we know, Baba Batra deals with the prevention of damages. The specific doctrine that will be presented here is part of a wider construct that has a basic value. Here is a...

Predictions and Projections

In the past few years, there has been great effort to develop conceptual and numerical models that aim to forecast the ecological and economical impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems. There are a dozen such projections in the current literature of which we will mention only a few examples. Paleontological studies of marine ecosystems can also aid in predicting how certain changes in ocean conditions might affect species and ecological communities. For example, Yasuhara et al. (2008)...

The Greening of Science and of

Sheldrake, even as spreading the blame for our present ecological crisis equally between religion and science, also sees signs for hope in both. He notices a reanimation of the physical world in recent science, which recognizes that nature is not tied down by external mechanical laws but is self-organizing from within Indeterminism, spontaneity and creativity have reemerged throughout the natural world. Immanent purposes or ends are now modeled in terms of attractors. And beneath everything,...

Distribution And Niche Modeling

Pseudobryopsis

For centuries, biogeographical patterns have been studied in a descriptive way by delineating provinces and regions based on the presence of observed species and degrees of endemism, rather than quantifying and explaining these patterns based on environmental variables (Adey and Steneck, 2001). The question as to which environmental variables best explain seaweed species' niches and distributions is, however, one of the most important in global change research. Biogeographical models based on...

Enzyme Inhibition Studies

Kanagewa et al. (2000) reported telomerase inhibition by a methanolic extract of C. sertularioides on a MOLT-4 cell culture at a level of 1.25 (v v). A comprehensive screening for phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitors from marine seaweeds revealed that CYN and structurally related metabolites from C. prolifera, C. bikinensis and C. racemosa are highly active (Mayer et al., 1993). CYN isolated from C. prolifera in 4.2 mM concentration lead to a 92 inhibition of PLA2 activity. An esterase-based...

Antiviral Antimicrobial Studies

A considerable inhibitory effect of acetone and ethanol extracts of C. taxifolia against the bacterium Bacillus subtilis and the yeast Candida albicans were observed by Crasta et al. (1997). Anti-bacterial activity in marine algae from the coast of Yucatan, Mexico, was investigated by Freile-Pelegrin and Morales (2004). After dissection of Caulerpa spp. in apical, basal and stolon regions and extraction, they observed that stolons of Caulerpa spp. exhibit the highest anti-bacterial activity. In...

Other Activities of Caulerpa Preparations

The non-specific agglutination of human red blood cells (haemagglutinating activity) was reported in extracts of Caulerpa cupressoides by Ainouz and Sam-paio (1991). Thangam and Kathiresan (1991a) reported the mosquito larvicidal effect of C. scalpelliformis extracts against Aedes aegypti with an LC50 value of 54 mg L. The same researchers also reported the synergetic effect of C. scalpelliformis extract with the synthetic insecticide 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (BHC) (Thangam and...

Deep Ecology Ecofeminism Ecophilosophy

Already the early nineteenth-century ecologists - such as Henry David Thoreau, John Muir, and Aldo Leopold - realized that protecting nature entailed much more than fencing in a parcel of land and preventing humans from exploiting its fauna and flora. They quite understood that the then incipient ecological crisis was at its heart a cultural and a moral crisis the result of the cultivation of a modern Western ideal of human existence that saw its fulfillment in the amassing of material...

The Ambiguity of Religions

David Kinsley's Ecology and Religion - a widely used text for university courses - juxtaposes chapters on Christianity as Ecologically Harmful and Christianity as Ecologically Responsible, illustrating the ambiguous record of Christianity with regard to its attitude toward nature on the one side extolling the greatness of nature as God's handiwork and on the other condemning nature as the source of humankind's downfall. A similar ambiguity can also be found in all other major traditions. None...

The Garden of Eden

The primal goal of the edict - to cultivate it and keep it (Genesis II 15) - has become a symbol for any discussion on Jewish ecology.5 This goal is defined in relationship to an environment whose delineated borders are quite clear. This is a Garden of Eden that was quite prevalent in the castles of kings, and its literary representations appear in various mythologies. Needless to say, such gardens were inaccessible to regular people nor were they permitted to be present therein. In Genesis, on...

Caulerpa Species as Adsorbents for Pollutants

The high adsorption properties of preparations from Caulerpa species on dyes and heavy metals have recently attracted increasing interest. Caulerpa species are proposed as low-cost adsorbents in these studies. Several physicochemical characterisations such as determination of adsorption kinetics, equilibrium constants and thermodynamics of the adsorption process have been reported. Generally, pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models are used to express adsorption kinetics....

Ecoactivism Ecology as Religion

Greenpeace is probably the world's best-known association of eco-activists. What is less known is its religious background Robert Hunter, its founder intended his movement to represent ecology as religion, describing its ethics as one of personal responsibility and confrontation. Hunter also believed that whales are the highest developed living beings on earth - higher than humans this is the background to the highly publicized Save the Whales campaigns. The members of Greenpeace also believe...

Scientific Roots of the Ecological Crisis

Disagreement with Toynbee and White has not only been voiced by defenders of the monotheisms but also by respectable scientists from a variety of backgrounds. Far from blaming religion for everything from climate change to soil erosion, they point their fingers at modern Western science that, in their opinion, took a wrong direction somewhere between the seventeenth and the twentieth centuries. Erwin Chargaff, one of the most successful biochemists of his generation, in later life considered...

Foundations

The chapters in this book offer full historical, natural scientific, and other scientific data that, in total, offer an extensive picture of The role of seaweeds in future global environments. The improved knowledge of scientific facts, however, will by no means lead to an avowal to one specific method of examination. Depending on the conflicting views of the interested parties, one of many options may be employed. The decisions are not based solely on science, but not without it either....

Conclusions

Our world is facing simultaneously a multitude of crises a worldwide financial and economic crisis of historic proportions, a severe food crisis in many parts of Africa, wars and insurrections, corrupt and incompetent governments, not to speak of the multitudinous natural catastrophes of the past few years tsunamis, hurricanes, floods, droughts, and earthquakes. There are predictions of even more worldwide disaster impending wars fought over scarce resources wiping out the majority of the...

Spatial Data Types

Analogous to manually drawn hardcopy maps, digitized maps (hardcopies transferred to computers) or computer-designed maps most often consist of three types of geometrical features expressed as vectors (Fig. 1) zero-dimensional points, one-dimensional lines, and two-dimensional polygons. For instance, a point could represent a tethered Nori platform in a bay, linked to a database containing quantitative fields (temperature, nutrients, salinity, biomass, number of active harvesting boats),...

The Dominant Secondary Metabolite of Caulerpa Genus Caulerpenyne CYN

Caulerpa spp. contain several linear terpenoid secondary metabolites and especially caulerpenyne (CYN, Fig. 1) has been associated with anti-cancer, anti-proliferative, anti-microbial, anti-herpetic and anti-viral properties in many reports. Both invasive Caulerpa spp. contain the dominant sesquiterpenoid metabolite CYN, which can be found in high concentrations up to 1.3 of the dry weight of the alga (Amade and Lem e, 1998 Dumay et al., 2002). CYN contents of invasive and non-invasive Caulerpa...

Man Environment Relations in Halakhic Sources Three Circles

Unlike the sources of Jewish thought, Jewish civil law, which contains the laws concerning nuisances, is fundamentally anthropocentric The Halakha seeks to protect the individual and society from various hazards. Generally, the Halakhic discussions can be described according to three circles of reference local, public, and global. Regarding the first two circles, Halakha offers an organized legal doctrine. Indeed, in the absence of updated scientific knowledge available to the religious...

Author index

Bleicher-Lhonneur, Genevieve, xxi, 252, 255-283 Boudouresque, Charles F., xxi, 31, 33-50 Cavas, Levent, xxi, 385, 387-397 Craigie, James S., xxi, 70, 73-90 Critchley, Alan T., xxi, 71, 73-90, 253, 255-283 Eggert, Anja, xxi, 139, 141-154 Einav, Rachel, ix, xi, xxi Figueroa, F lix L., xxii, 157, 159-182 Gao, Kunshan, xxii, 115, 117-126, 183, 185-198, 347 Glicksberg, Shlomo E., xxii, 435, 437-447 H der, Donat-P., xxii, 200-214 Hayashi, Leila, xxii, 251, 255-283 Helbling, E. Walter, xxii, 199,...

Two Forms of Preservation

The motto that derives from the above is preservation. The preservation motif is fundamental in the organization of a society and a community. These first guard themselves from, and only then act for. In a wider sense, a community will guard itself from the outside, but also the garden within must be maintained. Both forms of preservation have an environmental significance guarding the community includes guarding in the face of various ecological hazards the barn -important as it may be -...

Removing Oneself From Damage

Notwithstanding the unequivocal position of the mishnayot surveyed above, prohibiting the existence of hazards, the Halakhic ruling has been set according to the more lenient method of Tanaic (Mishnaic sage) Rabbi Yossi, who established that it is incumbent on the one who suffers the damage to distance himself from it.44 However, this approach was qualified by later-day Talmudic sages, who stated that in clear cases of hazards, as direct as a hit of an arrow, Rabbi Yossi concedes that the onus...

Indirect Nuisances And The Ability To Enforce The Measure Of Piety

The Babylonian Talmud discusses indirect nuisances, which although damaged a person's body or property, but in an indirect manner. The Talmudic discourse brings the opinion of Rabbi Yosef, that while one does not have to compensate another for 38 The discussion in the Babylonian Talmud states that in cases of serious hazards such as the stench from lavatories or smoke, Chazaka does not hold. 39 The style in the Mishnayot, which lay down not only prohibitions but also a proactive suggestion for...

Principles for Removing Modern Nuisances

Following are several applicable principles Serious ecological nuisances will be removed from the town up to a distance from which they will no longer cause harm. Town planning should include the allocation of industrial areas located at a distance from town, to ensure that industrially related activities will not take place within city bounds.30 Cottage industry can 28 Nachmanides (Spain, thirteenth century), in his commentary on Deuteronomy 22 6, acknowledged the possibility that man could...

Three Different Approaches to Man Environment Relations in Sources of Jewish Thought

Theoreticians and environmentalists generally refer to two contrasting perceptions of man's place in relation to the world surrounding him the anthropocentric perception, which places man at the center, and perceives him as having stewardship or mastery of world resources2 and the contrasting biocentric perception, which places nature at the center, and views man as one of the species whose importance is no greater than those of other species in the world, as arises from the following...

Ethical Aspects

Ethics begins fundamentally when one has determined to take rational findings into account. Everyone knows that smoking is dangerous, yet many still smoke. Even environmental politicians and nature conservation workers take short flights from the Cologne-Bonn airport although there are available comfortable railways. Whosoever decides to base his own behavior according to ecological perspectives makes a considerable commitment in that moment of choice - as long as that person's determination...

New Ecology for a Postnatural World

Ecological theory reflects the reality picture that the sciences project. Physics, the basic natural science, has always exerted great influence on shaping the popular view of the natural world. Radical changes in physical world-views have a deep impact on the perception of nature by the general public. Newton's conception of the universe as mechanical clockwork, regulated by a few fairly simple mathematical laws, became the world-model also of the philosophy and theology of his age, as well as...

Religious Roots of the Ecological Crisis

No less an authority than world historian Arnold J. Toynbee identified in a paper in the International Journal of Environmental Studies monotheism as the root cause of our environmental crisis. Referring specifically to Genesis I, 28 Be fruitful, multiply, fill the earth and conquer it. Be masters of the fish in the sea, the bird of heaven and all living animals on earth (The Jerusalem Bible, p. 6) . Toynbee not only questioned the right of humans to use and abuse the earth but also challenged...

For The Dominant Species

Ascophyllum nodosum is distributed in the western Atlantic Ocean from the Arctic Circle (66 33'N) to Long Island (40 42'N) in the south (Taylor, 1957 Gosner, 1978 Keser et al., 2005). The SST in this current distribution ranges from -2.1 C to 23 C (Keser et al., 2005). Fucus vesiculosus extends from Ellesmere Island (80 53'N) to North Carolina (34 48'N) (Taylor, 1957). The SST in this range of distribution varies from -2.1 C to 27.8 C. Ascophyllum nodosum is probably one of the most studied...

Email rugarteacadianca

Israel et al. (eds.), Seaweeds and their Role in Globally Changing Environments, Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology 15, 69-90 DOI 10.1007 978-90-481-8569-6_5, Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010 Dr. James S. Craigie currently is Researcher Emeritus, National Research Council of Canada, and Science Advisor for Acadian Seaplants Limited. He obtained his Ph.D. in 1959 from Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada. Additional research and studies were continued at...

General Discussion and Conclusion

It is difficult to give a definite answer to the question we asked ('Is global warming involved in the success of seaweed introductions '). Several distortions may affect the data set we used. (i) Study taxa and study areas largely depend upon the phycologists and their location. (ii) Large introduced species, belonging to taxa whose delineation is not controversial, are easier to detect than tiny species whose taxonomy is confused and accessible to very few specialists. (iii) Cryptogenic...

Medinalpez marco a

PROGRAMA DE INVESTIGACI N EN BOT NICA MARINA, DEPARTMENTO DE BIOLOGIA MARINA, UNIVERSIDAD AUTONOMA DE BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR APPARTADO POSTAL 19-B, LAPAZ B.C.S 23080, MEXICO. INSTITUTE OF MARINE SCIENCE, UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM, P.O. BOX 668, ZANZIBAR, TANZANIA. ENVIRONMENTAL BIOCHEMISTRY DIVISION, RESEARCH CENTER FOR INLAND SEAS, ORGANIZATION OF ADVANCED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, KOBE UNIVERSITY, KOBE 658-0022, JAPAN. ISRAEL OCEANOGRAPHIC & LIMNOLOGICAL RESEARCH LTD, NATIONAL CENTER FOR...