New Ecology for a Postnatural World

Ecological theory reflects the reality picture that the sciences project. Physics, the basic natural science, has always exerted great influence on shaping the popular view of the natural world. Radical changes in physical world-views have a deep impact on the perception of nature by the general public. Newton's conception of the universe as mechanical clockwork, regulated by a few fairly simple mathematical laws, became the world-model also of the philosophy and theology of his age, as well as...

Anticancer Antitumour Effects

The first anti-cancer study using purified CYN was carried out by Fischell et al. (1995). They reported growth-inhibitory effects of CYN against eight cancer cell lines of human origin. Barbier et al. (2001) reported on the anti-proliferative activity of CYN on the tumour cell line SK-N-SH. They observed a loss of neuritis and a compaction of the microtubule network in response to low doses of CYN. IC50 values of CYN were similar to those of the well-established anti-cancer drug cisplatinum....

Antiviral Antimicrobial Studies

A considerable inhibitory effect of acetone and ethanol extracts of C. taxifolia against the bacterium Bacillus subtilis and the yeast Candida albicans were observed by Crasta et al. (1997). Anti-bacterial activity in marine algae from the coast of Yucatan, Mexico, was investigated by Freile-Pelegrin and Morales (2004). After dissection of Caulerpa spp. in apical, basal and stolon regions and extraction, they observed that stolons of Caulerpa spp. exhibit the highest anti-bacterial activity. In...

Biodata of Klaus Konrad Klostermaier author of Ecology Science and Religion

Klaus Konrad Klostermaier, F.R.S.C., is University Distinguished Professor Emeritus (1999) at the University of Manitoba. He obtained a Dr. Phil. in Philosophy in 1961 from the Gregorian University, Rome, and a Ph.D. in Ancient Indian History and Culture from the University of Bombay (now Mumbai) in 1969. He joined the Department of Religion at the University of Manitoba (Canada) in 1970 and held the headship from 1986 to 1997. His areas of research and teaching are history of religions,...

Chances

As to the future role of microalgae as an alternative energy source, the key question is whether the production of biofuels by microalgal cultures will ever be able to compete on a large scale with petrofuels. The answer to this question is not easy. It depends on how its economical, ecological and political aspects are measured. There are good reasons to assume that petrofuel will remain the most important energy source for transportation in the near future and that its price will keep going...

Chapter

Chapter 1 deals with partnership the first word in the tract is ha-shutafin (lit the partnership). The subject is the ability of a society's - relatively small though it may be - to perpetuate relationships of partnership and mutual responsibility. An important doctrine that relates indirectly to our topic in this chapter is Partners of a courtyard must share in the expense of building a gate or a door to it. An inhabitant of a city has to share in the building of a wall around the city, with...

Conclusions

Our world is facing simultaneously a multitude of crises a worldwide financial and economic crisis of historic proportions, a severe food crisis in many parts of Africa, wars and insurrections, corrupt and incompetent governments, not to speak of the multitudinous natural catastrophes of the past few years tsunamis, hurricanes, floods, droughts, and earthquakes. There are predictions of even more worldwide disaster impending wars fought over scarce resources wiping out the majority of the...

Distancing Minimizing Or Preventing A Nuisance

A principle common to all the mishnah verses we reviewed was the obligation to distance the nuisance to a place where it is no longer harmful. As clarified in the previous section, the distances set by the sages in the Mishnah are not dogmatic, and can alter according to time and place, as determined by professionals. The above refer to modern-day local and public nuisances. However, when referring to global hazards, expert assessment can determine that the hazard shall not only be distanced,...

Enzyme Inhibition Studies

Kanagewa et al. (2000) reported telomerase inhibition by a methanolic extract of C. sertularioides on a MOLT-4 cell culture at a level of 1.25 (v v). A comprehensive screening for phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitors from marine seaweeds revealed that CYN and structurally related metabolites from C. prolifera, C. bikinensis and C. racemosa are highly active (Mayer et al., 1993). CYN isolated from C. prolifera in 4.2 mM concentration lead to a 92 inhibition of PLA2 activity. An esterase-based...

For The Dominant Species

Ascophyllum nodosum is distributed in the western Atlantic Ocean from the Arctic Circle (66 33'N) to Long Island (40 42'N) in the south (Taylor, 1957 Gosner, 1978 Keser et al., 2005). The SST in this current distribution ranges from -2.1 C to 23 C (Keser et al., 2005). Fucus vesiculosus extends from Ellesmere Island (80 53'N) to North Carolina (34 48'N) (Taylor, 1957). The SST in this range of distribution varies from -2.1 C to 27.8 C. Ascophyllum nodosum is probably one of the most studied...

Foundations

The chapters in this book offer full historical, natural scientific, and other scientific data that, in total, offer an extensive picture of The role of seaweeds in future global environments. The improved knowledge of scientific facts, however, will by no means lead to an avowal to one specific method of examination. Depending on the conflicting views of the interested parties, one of many options may be employed. The decisions are not based solely on science, but not without it either....

Indirect Nuisances And The Ability To Enforce The Measure Of Piety

The Babylonian Talmud discusses indirect nuisances, which although damaged a person's body or property, but in an indirect manner. The Talmudic discourse brings the opinion of Rabbi Yosef, that while one does not have to compensate another for 38 The discussion in the Babylonian Talmud states that in cases of serious hazards such as the stench from lavatories or smoke, Chazaka does not hold. 39 The style in the Mishnayot, which lay down not only prohibitions but also a proactive suggestion for...

Introduction

The genus Caulerpa belonging to the Bryopsidophyceae consists of about 75 species, which are distributed worldwide in tropical and temperate regions (Fama et al., 2002). Caulerpa spp. are siphonous green algae with a unique cellular organisation. Despite the fact that members of this genus can reach several meters in length, the organisms are unicellular with giant differentiated cells (Menzel, 1988). In recent years, this genus has attracted much attention because of Caulerpa taxifolia, which...

Medinalpez marco a

PROGRAMA DE INVESTIGACI N EN BOT NICA MARINA, DEPARTMENTO DE BIOLOGIA MARINA, UNIVERSIDAD AUTONOMA DE BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR APPARTADO POSTAL 19-B, LAPAZ B.C.S 23080, MEXICO. INSTITUTE OF MARINE SCIENCE, UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM, P.O. BOX 668, ZANZIBAR, TANZANIA. ENVIRONMENTAL BIOCHEMISTRY DIVISION, RESEARCH CENTER FOR INLAND SEAS, ORGANIZATION OF ADVANCED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, KOBE UNIVERSITY, KOBE 658-0022, JAPAN. ISRAEL OCEANOGRAPHIC & LIMNOLOGICAL RESEARCH LTD, NATIONAL CENTER FOR...

References

Amery, C. (1973) Das Ende der Vorsehung. Die gnadenlosen Folgen des Christentums, Hamburg. Arbeitspapier chrichten (2008) kumenischer Rat der Kirchen (ed.) Bistum W rzburg. AWH (ed.) (1989) Die Wahner Heide. Eine rheinische Landschaft im Spannungsfeld der Interessen, Natur- und Umweltschutz als ethische Verpflichtung, K ln, pp. 13-22. Bechtold-St ubli, H. and Hoffmann-Krayer, E. (eds.) (1935, 1987) In H nnerkopf. Meer. Handw rterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens. Vol. 6. de Gruyter, Berlin, Sp....

Springer

Israel oceanographic and Limnological Research, ltd. The National institute of oceanography P.o. Box 8030, tel Shikmona 31080. Haifa Israel rachel Einav blue ecosystems 26 hagat Street Zichron Yaakov Israel The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Israel ISBN 978-90-481-8568-9 e-iSbn 978-90-481-8569-6 Springer dordrecht heidelberg london new york library of Congress Control number 2010925024 Springer Science+business Media B.v. 2010 No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval...

Summary

PAR drives photosynthesis, whereas UVR is usually known to harm physiological processes in macroalgae as well as phytoplankton. UV-A, however, at reduced levels, has been shown to enhance photosynthesis and repairing processes of pho-todamaged molecules, whereas UV-B mostly results in harmful effects. During their long history of evolution, seaweeds have developed protective strategies against harmful UV irradiances, such as synthesizing and accumulating UVAC and the repair of DNA damage....

Two Forms of Preservation

The motto that derives from the above is preservation. The preservation motif is fundamental in the organization of a society and a community. These first guard themselves from, and only then act for. In a wider sense, a community will guard itself from the outside, but also the garden within must be maintained. Both forms of preservation have an environmental significance guarding the community includes guarding in the face of various ecological hazards the barn -important as it may be -...

Buddhism

The previous example provides more information about Buddhist sensibilities than any quote can. Each of the many ways of thinking within Buddhism has a very different understanding of reality and therefore each weighs the environmental problem differently. Many know of reincarnation as a Bodhisattva, one who remains on the last step before entering Nirvana out of compassion for creatures and denies himself entry to pave the way for others to reach enlightenment by teaching Buddhism. From there...

Future Directions and Research Priorities

THE QUEST FOR SPATIAL DATA IN SEAWEED BIOLOGY In its simplest form, spatially explicit seaweed data would refer to the availability of georeferenced species occurrences. While we discussed the practice of georefer-encing and dissemination of spatially explicit seaweed data in depth in the second section of this chapter, we briefly show a couple of examples to demonstrate the dramatic state of the current availability of this information. For instance, looking at a random Nori species,...

Email Georg Pohnertunijenade

Levent Ava

Israel et al. (eds.), Seaweeds and their Role in Globally Changing Environments, Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology 15, 385-397 DOI 10.1007 978-90-481-8569-6_22, Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010 A. Israel et al. (eds.), Seaweeds and their Role in Globally Changing Environments, Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology 15, 385-397 DOI 10.1007 978-90-481-8569-6_22, Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Kunshan gao1 and juntian xu2

1State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005, China 2Key Lab of Marine Biotechnology of Jiangsu Province, Huaihai Institute of Technology, Lianyungang, 222005, China Solar visible radiation (400-700 nm, photosynthetically active radiation, PAR) drives photosynthesis and, therefore, is indispensable for all forms of life. In aquatic ecosystems, photosynthetic carbon fixation contributes to nearly 50 of the global primary production (Behrenfeld et al.,...

Email lcavasdeuedutr

Georg Pohnert pursued his doctoral studies in the group of Professor W. Boland. After receiving his Ph.D. in 1997, he moved to the Cornell University for a postdoc on the biochemical and biophysical characterisation of the E. coli P-protein with a focus on the phenylalanine receptor site. He moved in 1998 to the Max-Planck-Institute for Chemical Ecology, where he worked as group leader on chemical defence mechanisms of algae. In 2005, he was appointed as assistant professor at the...

Spatial Data Types

Analogous to manually drawn hardcopy maps, digitized maps (hardcopies transferred to computers) or computer-designed maps most often consist of three types of geometrical features expressed as vectors (Fig. 1) zero-dimensional points, one-dimensional lines, and two-dimensional polygons. For instance, a point could represent a tethered Nori platform in a bay, linked to a database containing quantitative fields (temperature, nutrients, salinity, biomass, number of active harvesting boats),...

Biodata of Dr Gil Rilov and Haim Trebes authors of Climate Change Effects on Marine Ecological Communities

Gil Rilov is a Senior Scientist at the National Institute of Oceanography, Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Haifa, Israel. He obtained his Ph.D. from Tel Aviv University in 2000 in Marine Ecology, was a post-doc Fulbright Scholar at Duke University (USA), and did a second post-doc at the Canterbury University (USA). He was an Assistant Professor - Senior Research at Oregon State University (USA) between 2005 and 2008 before returning to Israel. Dr. Rilov's scientific...

GIS and Remote Sensing Phycological Applications

Acquiring GPS coordinates has become self-evident, with handheld GPS devices nowadays fitting within any budget, provided that accuracy requirements are not smaller than 10-15 m. Devices capable of handling publicly available differential correction signals like Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS, covering North America), European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS, covering Europe), and equivalent systems in Japan and India are slightly more expensive but offer accuracies between...

Removing Oneself From Damage

Notwithstanding the unequivocal position of the mishnayot surveyed above, prohibiting the existence of hazards, the Halakhic ruling has been set according to the more lenient method of Tanaic (Mishnaic sage) Rabbi Yossi, who established that it is incumbent on the one who suffers the damage to distance himself from it.44 However, this approach was qualified by later-day Talmudic sages, who stated that in clear cases of hazards, as direct as a hit of an arrow, Rabbi Yossi concedes that the onus...

Deep Ecology Ecofeminism Ecophilosophy

Already the early nineteenth-century ecologists - such as Henry David Thoreau, John Muir, and Aldo Leopold - realized that protecting nature entailed much more than fencing in a parcel of land and preventing humans from exploiting its fauna and flora. They quite understood that the then incipient ecological crisis was at its heart a cultural and a moral crisis the result of the cultivation of a modern Western ideal of human existence that saw its fulfillment in the amassing of material...

General Discussion and Conclusion

It is difficult to give a definite answer to the question we asked ('Is global warming involved in the success of seaweed introductions '). Several distortions may affect the data set we used. (i) Study taxa and study areas largely depend upon the phycologists and their location. (ii) Large introduced species, belonging to taxa whose delineation is not controversial, are easier to detect than tiny species whose taxonomy is confused and accessible to very few specialists. (iii) Cryptogenic...

Author index

Bleicher-Lhonneur, Genevieve, xxi, 252, 255-283 Boudouresque, Charles F., xxi, 31, 33-50 Cavas, Levent, xxi, 385, 387-397 Craigie, James S., xxi, 70, 73-90 Critchley, Alan T., xxi, 71, 73-90, 253, 255-283 Eggert, Anja, xxi, 139, 141-154 Einav, Rachel, ix, xi, xxi Figueroa, F lix L., xxii, 157, 159-182 Gao, Kunshan, xxii, 115, 117-126, 183, 185-198, 347 Glicksberg, Shlomo E., xxii, 435, 437-447 H der, Donat-P., xxii, 200-214 Hayashi, Leila, xxii, 251, 255-283 Helbling, E. Walter, xxii, 199,...

1 r

Mean absorption characteristics of UV-absorbing compounds (OD at 330 nm fresh weight (FW)) of Ceramium sp., Callithamnion gaudichaudii, Corallina officinalis, Porphyra columbina, Enteromorpha linza, Dictyota sp., and Ulva rigida exposed to UVR as a function of chl a concentration (OD(665 nm) FW). (After Helbling et al., 2002.) 6. Algae as Food for Other Organisms Macroalgae, as well as the environment where they grow, offer shelter and food for diverse organisms, mainly invertebrates....

Biomass

The A. nodosum resource has been divided into six geographic areas along the Nova Scotia and southern New Brunswick shores (Fig. 3). Acadian Seaplants Limited (ASL), a Canadian seaweed processing company, has been granted 11 leases in NS in the most productive rockweed areas, and the whole of the southern NB coastline. The area corresponds to 76 of the total resource for the region. For management purposes, the company has divided its leases into 340 harvesting sectors (Ugarte and Sharp, 2001)...

Microalgae as Second Generation Energy Plants

Microalgae Raceway Pond

The use of microalgae for the production of biofuels has many ecological and economical advantages. First of all, microalgae show a much higher efficiency in converting solar energy to biomass. From the biomass of corn grown on one hectare, about 2,000 m3 biogas (methane) can be obtained however, biomass of microalgae grown on the equivalent area produces about 200,000 m3 (Solarbiofuels 2008). In microalgal biomass, the percentage of compounds suitable for the production of biofuels (e.g.,...

Zviely dov

Sea Level Curve Rohling 2009

LEON RECANATI INSTITUTE FOR MARITIME STUDIES (RIMS), UNIVERSITY OF HAIFA, HAIFA 31905, ISRAEL. Biodata of Michal Lichter, Dov Zviely, Micha Klein, and Dorit Sivan, authors of Sea-Level Changes in the Mediterranean Past, Present and Future - A Review Dr. Michal Lichter is currently a Postdoctoral Researcher in the Coasts at Risk and Sea-Level Rise (CRSLR) Research Group of the Future Ocean Excellence Cluster, based at the Institute of Geography, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany. She...

Negative Impacts Of Antithamnionella Spirographidis On Biodiversity And Humans

Bekhoffer, Y.G. (1996) Recycling and the Halacha. Tehumin 16 296-302. David, S. (2006) Cutting down fruit trees to settle disputes between neighbors. Tehumin 26 286-292. Ferstenfeld, M. (2002) The environment in Jewish tradition - a sustainable world, Jerusalem. Moreshet Hamishpat B-Isrel (in Hebrew). Rakover, N. (1994) The environment - ideological and legal aspects, Jersualem. Moreshet Hamishpat B-Isrel (in Hebrew). Ralbag, M. (2003) Neighborly damage - noise, visual damage and humidity....

Biofuels

Biofuels (biogas, bioalcohol, biodiesel) are made from plant biomass, and are more or less carbon neutral, since in burning they do not increase the overall CO2 content of the atmosphere but set free just the amount of CO2 that was fixed before in photosynthesis of the plant (Schiermeier et al., 2008). Thus, in recent years, plant biomass has gained growing importance as an alternative energy source. Main current sources of bioalcohol (mostly bioethanol) are sugars of sugarcane and starch of...

Email rugarteacadianca

Israel et al. (eds.), Seaweeds and their Role in Globally Changing Environments, Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology 15, 69-90 DOI 10.1007 978-90-481-8569-6_5, Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010 Dr. James S. Craigie currently is Researcher Emeritus, National Research Council of Canada, and Science Advisor for Acadian Seaplants Limited. He obtained his Ph.D. in 1959 from Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada. Additional research and studies were continued at...

Biotechnological potential of seaweeds

Intensive Sea Weed Aquaculture A Potent Solution Against Global Warming Turan, G. and Neori, The Future is Green On the Biotechnological Potential of Green Algae Reisser, The Potential of Caulerpa spp. for Biotechnological and Pharmacological Applications Cavas, L. and Pohnert, Ecology, Science, and Religion Klostermaier, Nature and Resource Conservation as Value-Assessment Reflections on Theology and Ethics Roth, Global Warming According to Jewish Law Three Circles of Reference Glicksberg,...

Caulerpa Species as Adsorbents for Pollutants

The high adsorption properties of preparations from Caulerpa species on dyes and heavy metals have recently attracted increasing interest. Caulerpa species are proposed as low-cost adsorbents in these studies. Several physicochemical characterisations such as determination of adsorption kinetics, equilibrium constants and thermodynamics of the adsorption process have been reported. Generally, pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models are used to express adsorption kinetics....

Effects of Temperature Increases

Temperature is probably the most dominant rate-determining factor in biology ranging from subcellular to community-level processes, with direct and indirect effects on organisms' physiology, ontogeny, trophic interactions, biodiversity, phenology, and biogeography. Increases in temperature due to climate change have the potential to impact most marine ecosystems, directly through the impact on species physiology (growth, reproduction, etc.) or indirectly through impacts on ocean dynamics...

Distribution And Niche Modeling

For centuries, biogeographical patterns have been studied in a descriptive way by delineating provinces and regions based on the presence of observed species and degrees of endemism, rather than quantifying and explaining these patterns based on environmental variables (Adey and Steneck, 2001). The question as to which environmental variables best explain seaweed species' niches and distributions is, however, one of the most important in global change research. Biogeographical models based on...

Other Activities of Caulerpa Preparations

The non-specific agglutination of human red blood cells (haemagglutinating activity) was reported in extracts of Caulerpa cupressoides by Ainouz and Sam-paio (1991). Thangam and Kathiresan (1991a) reported the mosquito larvicidal effect of C. scalpelliformis extracts against Aedes aegypti with an LC50 value of 54 mg L. The same researchers also reported the synergetic effect of C. scalpelliformis extract with the synthetic insecticide 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (BHC) (Thangam and...

Principles for Removing Modern Nuisances

Following are several applicable principles Serious ecological nuisances will be removed from the town up to a distance from which they will no longer cause harm. Town planning should include the allocation of industrial areas located at a distance from town, to ensure that industrially related activities will not take place within city bounds.30 Cottage industry can 28 Nachmanides (Spain, thirteenth century), in his commentary on Deuteronomy 22 6, acknowledged the possibility that man could...

Ecoactivism Ecology as Religion

Greenpeace is probably the world's best-known association of eco-activists. What is less known is its religious background Robert Hunter, its founder intended his movement to represent ecology as religion, describing its ethics as one of personal responsibility and confrontation. Hunter also believed that whales are the highest developed living beings on earth - higher than humans this is the background to the highly publicized Save the Whales campaigns. The members of Greenpeace also believe...

The Dominant Secondary Metabolite of Caulerpa Genus Caulerpenyne CYN

Caulerpa spp. contain several linear terpenoid secondary metabolites and especially caulerpenyne (CYN, Fig. 1) has been associated with anti-cancer, anti-proliferative, anti-microbial, anti-herpetic and anti-viral properties in many reports. Both invasive Caulerpa spp. contain the dominant sesquiterpenoid metabolite CYN, which can be found in high concentrations up to 1.3 of the dry weight of the alga (Amade and Lem e, 1998 Dumay et al., 2002). CYN contents of invasive and non-invasive Caulerpa...

Discovering Ecological Wisdom in Ancient Texts

Stung by White's and Toynbee's criticism, the monotheists began to reread and reinterpret their scriptures from an ecological perspective. They discovered a great many texts that appear to provide support for contemporary ecological thinking. A recent edition of a popular English Bible translation marks all texts that refer to nature in green - all in all about a thousand. Rabbi Sharon Joseph Levi sees an ecological command in the Talmud text God created Adam and led Adam through the trees in...

Biodata of Ugarte RA Craigie JS and Critchley AT authors of Fucoid Flora of the Rocky Intertidal of the Canadian

Ugarte graduated as Marine Biologist from the Universidad de Concepci n in Chile in 1982. He worked on the establishment of Gracilaria farms in southern Chile until 1984 and later joined the laboratory of Dr. Bernab Santelices at the Universidad Cat lica de Chile in Santiago, where he worked on applied phycology until 1988. Later that year, he traveled to Canada for a training program on resource management with the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO), under the direction of...