Sunburn

The action spectra for sunburn and tanning were determined using light skinned volunteers who received narrow bands of constant irradiance on a small area of

Tabic 12.1 Diseases in Ihe United States that have been associated with UV radiation; in order of U.S. deaths per year (usually for 2001). Incidcncc and mortality are per annum from rcccrtt years. (M) male; (F) female; R1 = incidence risk increase; RR =risk reduction; MRR = mortality risk reduction

Disease

Incidence/100,000

U.S. Cases

U.S. Deaths

UV Influence

Vitamin D Influence

Co ion cancer

39 (U.S. Centers for

53,000 (Centers for Disease

RR (C.F. Garland and Garland,

RR (C.F. Garland

Disease Control and

Control and Prevention,

1980; C.F. Garland et al., 1999;

& Garland, 1980),

Prevention, 2005)

2005)

W.B. Grant, 2003), MRR (C.F.

MRR (Moan et al„

Garland et al., 1999)

2005)

Breast cancer

28 (F)(Cemers for

41,800 (Centers for Disease

RR (W.B. Grant, 2002a, 2003),

RR (W.B. Grant,

Disease Control and

Control and Prevention,

MRR (C.F. Garland et al., 1999)

2003)

Prevention, 2005)

2005)

Prostate cancer

16! (Centers for Disease

30,700 (Centers for Disease

RR (W.B, Grant, 2003), MRR

Control and Prevention,

Control and Prevention,

(C.F, Garland et al., 1999)

2005)

2005)

Pancreas

11 (Centers for Disease

29,800 (Centers for Disease

RR (W.B. Grant, 2003)

RR (M) (W.B.

Control and Prevention,

Control and Prevention,

Grant, 2003)

2005)

2005)

Non-Hodgkin

18 (Centers for Disease

22,300 (Centers for Disease

RR (W.B. Grant, 2003; Smedby

lymphoma

Control and Prevention,

Control and Prevention,

et al., 2005)

2005)

2005)

Cancer of ovary

13 (Centers for Disease

14,400 (Centers for Disease

RR (W.B. Grant, 2003), MRR

Control and Prevention,

Control and Prevention,

(C.F. Garland et al., 1999)

2005)

2005)

Cancer of

5 {Centers for Disease

12,500 (Centers for Disease

RR (W.B. Grant, 2003)

esophagus

Control and Prevention,

Control and Prevention,

2005)

2005)

(Continued)

Disease

Incidence/100,000

U.S. Cases

U.S. Deaths

Influence

Bladder cancer

21 (Centers for Disease

12,200 (Centers for Disease

RR (W.B. Grant, 2002b)

Control and Prevention,

Control and Prevention,

2005)

2005)

Kidney cancer

13 (Centers for Disease

12,100 (Centers for Disease

RR (M) (W.B. Grant, 2003)

Control and Prevention,

Control and Prevention,

2005)

2005)

Multiple

5 (Centers for Disease

10,700 (Centers for Disease

RR (W.B, Grant, 2003)'

myeloma

Control and Prevention,

Control and Prevention,

2005)

2005)

Rectal cancer

14 (Centers for Disease

8,500 (Centers for Disease

RR (W.B. Grant, 2003)

Control and Prevention,

Control and Prevention,

2005)

2005)

Melanoma

17 (Saraiya etal, 2004)

55,000 (Saraiya et

7,900 (Centers for Disease

Rl (Saraiya et al., 2004), MRR

al., 2004)

Control and Prevention,

(Berwick el al., 2005)

2005)

Uterus(corpus)

23 (Centers for Disease

3200 (Centers for Disease

RR (W. B. Grant, 2002b)

Control and Prevention,

Control and Prevention,

2005)

2005)

Squamous cell

107 (Hess etal, 2006)

2,500"

High risk

carcinoma

Cataract

350,000 (Ocampo

Occurs post stirgery

UV among many suspected risk

and Foster, 2004)

factors

Basal cell

475 (M), 250 (F) (Bader,

900,000

rare

High risk factor

carcinoma

2008)

* UV exposure did not appear as a significant risk reduction in later studies (Pcrs. comm., William Grant, August 2005). ** From an estimate that appeared in the Squamous Cell Carcinoma website of eMedicine (Hess et al.. 2006) before 2006.

oo 00 cn

* UV exposure did not appear as a significant risk reduction in later studies (Pcrs. comm., William Grant, August 2005). ** From an estimate that appeared in the Squamous Cell Carcinoma website of eMedicine (Hess et al.. 2006) before 2006.

exposed skin over different times to create a variance in doses (Parrish et al., 1982; McKinlay and Diffey, 1987). The average time to administer a tanning dose in the UV-B varied from 0.36 min to 7.15 min, depending on the wavelength. Parrish et al. (1982) did not report whether there would be reciprocity between time and irradiance in administering the dose. At some wavelengths, subjects were exposed for considerable lengths of time, up to nearly five hours for longer wavelengths in the UV-A (400 nm - 320 nm). The reciprocity issue may be important in evaluating the effectiveness of shade structures, because presumably there is some level of irradiance below which no damage would occur, even if the subject spent a long time undergoing that irradiance. For more on the reciprocity issue, see the Section 2.10 'Calculation of optimal times for exposure to sunlight' in Chapter 2 (McKenzie and Liley, 2009) of this volume.

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