Barkstrom BR (1984) The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 65:1170 -1185

Bassman JH (2004) Ecosystem consequences of enhanced solar ultraviolet radiation: secondary plant metabolites as mediators of multiple trophic interactions in terrestrial plant communities. Photochemistry and Photobiology 79(5): 382 - 398 Bigelow DS, Slusser JR, Beaubien AF, and Gibson JH (1998) The USDA Ultraviolet Radiation

Monitoring Program. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 79(4): 601 - 615 Bigelow DS, and Slusser JR (2000) Establishing the stability of multifilter UV rotating shadow-

band radiometers. Journal of Geophysical Research 105(D4): 4833 - 4840 Blumthaler M, and Ambach W (1990) Indication of increasing solar ultraviolet-B radiation flux in Alpine regions. Science 248(4952): 206 - 208 Bodhaine BA, Dutton EG, McKenzie RL, and Johnston PV (1998) Calibrating broadband UV instruments: ozone and solar zenith angle dependence. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 15(4): 916 - 926 Bodhaine BA, Wood NB, Dutton EG, and Slusser JR (1999) On Rayleigh optical depth calculations.

Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 16: 1854 - 1861 Bredahl L, Ro-Poulsen H, and Mikkelsen TN (2004) Reduction of the ambient UV-B radiation in the high-arctic increases Fv/Fm in salix arctica and vaccinium uliginosum and reduces stomatal conductance and internal C02 concentration in salix arctica. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 36(3): 364 - 369 Bucholtz A (1995) Rayleigh-scattering calculations for the terrestrial atmosphere. Applied Optics 34(15): 2765 - 2773

Caldwell MM, Camp CW, Warner CW, and Flint SD (1986) Action spectra and their role in assessing biological consequences of solar UV-B radiation change. In: Worrest RC, Caldwell MM (eds) Stratospheric Ozone Reduction, Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Plant Life. Springer-Verlag, pp.87 -111

Caldwell MM, Ballare CL, Bomman JF, Flint SD, Björn LO, Teramura AH, Kulandaivelu G, and Tevini M (2003) Terrestrial ecosystems, increased solar ultraviolet radiation and interactions with other climatic change factors. Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences 2(1): 29 - 38

Clarke A, and Harris CM (2003) Polar marine ecosystems: major threats and future change.

Environmental Conservation 30(1): 1 - 25 Davis JM, and Slusser J (2005) New USDA UVB synthetic spectra algorithm. In: Bernhard G, Slusser JR, Herman JR, Gao W (eds) Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects V. Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 5886 (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 2005), pp. 58860B-1-58860B-7

Disterhoft P (2005) Stability characteristics of 1000 watt FEL-type QTH lamps during the seasoning and screening process. In: Bernhard G, Slusser JR, Herman JR, Gao W (eds) Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-based Measurements, Models, and Effects V, Proceedings of SPIE Vol 5886, SPIE, 58860G DuBois Paul (2005) MySQLTM The definitive guide to using, programming, and administering

MySQL 4.1 and 5.0, Third Edition. Sams Publishing, Indianapolis, IN, USA Early E, Thompson A, Johnson C, DeLuisi J, Disterhoft P, Wardle D, Wu E, Mou W, Sun Y, Lucas T, Mestechkina T, Harrison L, Berndt J, and Hayes DS (1998a) The 1995 North American interagency intercomparison of ultraviolet monitoring spectroradiometers. Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology 103(1): 15 - 62 Early E, Thompson A, Johnson C, DeLuisi J, Disterhoft P, Wardle D, Wu E, Mou W, Ehramjian J, Tusson J, Mestechkina, Beaubian M, Gibson J, and Hayes D (1998b) The 1996 North American interagency intercomparison of ultraviolet monitoring spectroradiometers. Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology 103(5): 449 - 482 Farman JC, Gardiner BG, and Shanklin JD (1985) Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClO*/NO* interaction. Nature 315: 207 - 210 Flint SD, Ryel RJ, and Caldwell MM (2003) Ecosystem UV-B experiments in terrestrial communities: a review of recent findings and methodologies. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 120: 177 - 189 Frederick JE, and Snell HE (1988) Ultraviolet radiation levels during the Antarctic spring.

Science 241(4864): 438 - 440 Fröhlich C, and Shaw GE (1980) New determination of Rayleigh scattering in the terrestrial atmosphere. Applied Optics 19(11): 1773 - 1775 Gao W, Slusser J, Gibson J, Scott G, Bigelow D, Kerr J, and McArthur B (2001) Direct-Sun column ozone retrieval by the ultraviolet multifilter rotating shadow-band radiometer and comparison with those from Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers. Applied Optics, 40(19): 3149 - 3155

Gao W, Grant RH, Heisler GM, and Slusser JR (2002) A geometric ultraviolet-B radiation transfer model applied to vegetation canopies. Agronomy Journal 94: 475 - 482 Gao W, Grant RH, Heisler GM, and Slusser JR (2003) UV-B radiation in a row-crop canopy:

An extended 1-D model. J. Agric. Forest Meteorol. 120: 141 - 151 Gao W, Gao ZQ, and Chang NB (2009) Comparative analysis of UVB exposure between Nimbus 7/TOMS satellite estimates and ground-based measurements. In: Gao W, Schmoldt D,

Slusser JR (eds) UV Radiation in Global Change: Measurements, Modeling and Effects on Ecosystems. Springer-Verlag and Tsinghua Univ. Press Gibson JH (ed) (1991) Justification and criteria for the monitoring of ultraviolet (UV) radiation: Report of UV-B measurements workshop (URL: publications/91_workshop.pdf) Gibson JH (1992) Criteria for status-and-trends monitoring of ultraviolet (UV) radiation: Recommendations of the UV-B Monitoring Workshop (URL: UVB/publications/92_report.pdf) Grainger RG, Basher RE, and McKenzie RL (1993) UV-B Robertson-Berger meter characterization and field calibration. Applied Optics 32(3): 343 - 349 Grant RH (1999) Potential effect of soybean heliotropism on ultraviolet-B irradiance and dose.

Agronomy Journal 91: 1017 - 1023 Grant WB (1988) Global stratospheric ozone and UVB radiation. Science 242(4882): 1111 Gröbner J, Blumthaler M, and Ambach W (1996) Experimental investigation of spectral global irradiance measurement errors due to a non ideal cosine response. Geophysical Research Letters 23(18): 2493 - 2496 Hand JL, Kreidenweis SM, Slusser J, and Scott G (2004) Comparisons of aerosol optical properties derived from Sun photometry to estimates inferred from surface measurements in Big Bend National Park, Texas. Atmospheric Environment 38: 6813 - 6821 Harrison L, and Michalsky J (1994) Objective algorithms for the retrieval of optical depths from ground-based measurements. Applied Optics 33(22): 5126 - 5132 Harrison L, Michalsky J, and Berndt J (1994) Automated multifilter rotating shadow-band radiometer: an instrument for optical depth and radiation measurements. Applied Optics 33(22): 5118 - 5125

Herman JR, Bhartia PK, Ziemke J, Ahmad Z, and Larko D (1996) UV-B increases (1979 - 1992)

from decreases in total ozone. Geophysical Research Letters 23(16): 2117 - 2120 Janson GT, Slusser JR, Scott G, Disterhoft P, and Lantz K (2004) Long-term stability of UV multifilter rotating shadowband radiometers, part 2: lamp calibrations versus the Langley method. In: Slusser JR, Herman JR, Gao W, Bernhard G (eds) Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-based Measurements, Models, and Effects IV. Proceedings of SPIE Vol 5545, SPIE, 43 - 48 Jaque F, Tocho JO, DaSilva LF, Bertuccelli G, Crino E, Cusso F, DeLaurentis MA, Hormaechea JL, Lifante G, Nicora MG, Ranea-Sandoval HF, Valderrama V, and Zoja GD (1994) Ground-based ultraviolet radiation measurements during springtime in the southern hemisphere. Europhysics Letters, 28(4): 289 - 293 Kakani VG, Reddy KR, Zhao D, and Sailaja K (2003) Field crop responses to ultraviolet-B

radiation: a review. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 120: 191 - 218 Kerr JB (2005) Understanding the factors that affect surface ultraviolet radiation. Optical Engineering,

44(4): 041002-1 - 041002-9 Kerr JB, and McElroy CT (1993) Evidence for large upward trends of ultraviolet-B radiation linked to ozone depletion. Science 262(5136): 1032 - 1034 Kulandaivelu G, and Tevini M (2003) Terrestrial ecosystems, increased solar ultraviolet radiation and interactions with other climatic change factors. Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences 2(1): 29 - 38

Landelius T, and Josefsson W (2000) Methods for cosine correction of broadband UV data and their effect on the relation between UV irradiance and cloudiness. Journal of Geophysical Research 105(D4): 4785 - 4802 Lantz KO, Disterhoft P, DeLuisi JJ, Early E, Thompson A, Bigelow D, and Slusser J (1999) Methodology for deriving clear-sky erythemal calibration factors for UV broadband radiometers of the U.S. Central UV Calibration Facility. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 16: 1736 -1752

Lantz K, Disterhoft P, Early E, Thompson A, DeLuisi J, Berndt J, Harrison L, Kiedron P, Ehramjian J, Bernhard G, Cabasug L, Robertson J, Mou W, Taylor T, Slusser J, Bigelow D, Durham B, Janson G, Hayes D, Beaubien M, and Beaubien A (2002) The 1997 North American interagency intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers including narrowband filter radiometers. Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology 107(1): 19 - 62 Lantz K, Disterhoft P, Wilson C, Janson G, Slusser J, Bloms S, and Michalsky J (2005) Out-of-band rejection studies of the UV Multi-Filter Rotating Shadow-band radiometers. In: Schäfer K, Comeron A, Slusser JR, Picard RH, Carleer MR, Sifakis N (eds) Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere X, Proceedings of SPIE Vol 5979, SPIE, 59791N Lean J (1991) Variations in the Sun's radiative output. Reviews of Geophysics 29: 505 - 535 Lean JL, Rottman GJ, Kyle HL, Woods TN, Hickey JR, and Puga LC (1997) Detection and parameterization of variations in solar mid- and near-ultraviolet radiation (200 nm - 400 nm). Journal of Geophysical Research 102 (D25): 29939 - 29956 Leszczynski K, Jokela K, Ylianttila L, Visuri R, and Blumthaler M (1998) Erythemally weighted radiometers in solar UV monitoring: results from the WMO/STUK intercomparison. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 67(2): 212 - 221 Li Y, Yue M, and Wang XL (1998) Effects of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on crop structure, growth and yield components of spring wheat under field conditions. Field Crops Research 57(3): 253 - 263 LI-COR, Inc. (1991) LI-COR Terrestrial Radiation Sensors, Type SA Instruction Manual. LI-COR, Lincoln, NE, USA

Marggraf WA, and Griggs M (1969) Aircraft measurements and calculations of the total downward flux of solar radiation as a function of altitude. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 26: 469 - 476

Mayer B, and Seckmeyer G (1996) All-weather comparison between spectral and broadband (Robertson-Berger) UV measurements. Photochemistry and Photobiology 64(5): 792 - 799 McKenzie R, Bodeker G, Scott G, Slusser J, and Lantz K (2006) Geographical differences in erythemally-weighted UV measured at mid-latitude USDA sites. Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences (5): 343 - 352 McKenzie RL, Aucamp PJ, Bais AF, Björn LO, and Ilyas M (2007) Changes in biologically-active ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface. Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences 6(3): 218 - 231 McKinlay AF, and Diffey BL (1987) A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin. CIE-Journal 6(1): 17 - 22

Michalsky JJ, Perez R, Stewart R, LeBaron BA, and Larrison L (1988) Design and development of a rotating shadowband radiometer solar radiation/daylight network. Solar Energy 41(6): 577 - 581

Michalsky JJ, Harrison LC, and Berkheiser WE III (1995) Cosine response characteristics of some radiometric and photometric sensors. Solar Energy 54(6): 397 - 402 Min Q, and Harrison LC (1998) Synthetic spectra for terrestrial ultraviolet from discrete measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research 103(D14): 17033 - 17039 Newchurch MJ, Yang E-S, Cunnold DM, Reinsel GC, Zawodny JM, and Russell JM III (2003) Evidence for slowdown in stratospheric ozone loss: First stage of ozone recovery. Journal of Geophysical Research 108(D16): 4507, D0I:10.1029/2003JD003471 O'Hara F, and O'Hara L (eds) (1993) Report. UV-B Critical Issue Workshop, Cocoa Beach,

FL, Center for Global and Environmental Studies, 0ak Ridge National Laboratory Press WH, Teukolsky SA, Vetterling WT, and Flannery BP (1992) Numerical Recipes in C: the art of scientific computing. Second Edition, Cambridge University Press Reddy KR, Kakani VG, Zhao D, Mohammed AR, and Gao W (2003) Cotton responses to ultraviolet-B radiation: experimentation and algorithm development. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 120: 249 - 265 Reinsel GC, Miller AJ, Weatherhead EC, Flynn LE, Nagatani RM, Tiao GC, and Wuebbles DJ (2005) Trend analysis of total ozone data for turnaround and dynamical contributions. Journal of Geophysical Research 110:D16306, D0I:10.1029/2004JDD004662 Rozema J, van de Staaij J, Björn LO, and Caldwell M (1997) UV-B as an environmental factor in plant life: stress and regulation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 12(1): 22 - 28 Schmid B, and Wehrli C (1995) Comparison of Sun photometer calibration by use of the Langley technique and the standard lamp. Applied Optics 34(21): 4500 - 4512 Schmid B, Spyak PR, Biggar SF, Wehrli C, Sekler J, Ingold T, and Mämpfer N (1998) Evaluation of the applicability of solar and lamp radiometric calibrations of a precision Sun photometer operating between 300 nm and 1025 nm. Applied Optics 37(18): 3923 - 3941 Science and Policy Associates (1992) Report. UV-B Monitoring Workshop: A review of the science and status of measuring and monitoring programs, Washington, DC, Science and Policy Associates, Inc

Scotto J, Cotton G, Urbach F, Berger D, and Fears T (1988) Biologically effective ultraviolet radiation: surface measurements in the United States, 1974 to 1985. Science 239(4841): 762 - 764

Seckmeyer G, Bais AF, Bernhard G, Blumthaler M, Booth CR, Lantz RL, McKenzie RL, Disterhoft P, and Webb A (2007) Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation. Part 2: Broadband instruments measuring erythemally weighted solar irradiance. WMO/GAW No. 164, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva Shaw GE (1982) Solar spectral irradiance and atmospheric transmission at Mauna Loa Observatory.

Applied Optics 21(11): 2006 - 2011 Shettle EP, and Anderson SM (1995) New visible and near IR ozone absorption cross-sections from MODTRAN. In: Anderson GP, Picard RH, Chetwynd JH (eds) Proceedings of the 17th Annual Review Conference on Atmospheric Transmission Models, Phillips Laboratory, Directorate of Geophyiscs, Hanscom Air Force Base, MA, pp. 335 - 345

Slusser J, Gibson J, Bigelow D, Kolinski D, Disterhoft P, Lantz K, and Beaubien A (2000) Langley method of calibrating UV filter radiometers. Journal of Geophysical Research 105(D4): 4841 - 4849

Smith RC, Préselin BB, Baker KS, Bidigare RR, Boucher NP, Coley T, Karentz D, MacIntyre S, Matlick HA, Menzies D, Ondrusek M, Wan Z, and Waters KJ (1992) Ozone depletion: ultraviolet radiation and phytoplankton biology in Antarctic Waters. Science 255(5047): 952 - 959

Staehelin J, Harris NRP, Appenzeller C, and Eberhard J (2001) Ozone trends: A review. Reviews of Geophysics 39(2): 231 - 290 Stephens GL (1994) Remote Sensing of the Lower Atmosphere: An Introduction. Oxford

University Press, New York, p. 253 Stolarski R, Bojkov R, Bishop L, Zerefos C, Staehelin J, and Zawodny J (1992) Measured trends in stratospheric ozone. Science, 256(5055): 342 - 349 Tegelberg R, Aphalo PJ, and Julkunen-Tiitto R (2002) Effects of long-term, elevated ultraviolet-B radiation on phytochemicals in the bark of silver birch (Betula pendula). Tree Physiology 22: 1257 -1263

Teillet PM (1990) Rayleigh optical depth comparisons from various sources. Applied Optics 29(13): 1897 -1900

Teramura AH, Sullivan JH, and Ziska LH (1990) Interaction of elevated ultraviolet-B radiation and CO2 on productivity and photosynthetic characteristics in wheat, rice, and soybean. Plant Physiology 94: 470 - 475 Thomason LW, Herman BM, and Reagan JA (1983) The effect of atmospheric attenuators with structured vertical distributions on air mass determinations and Langley plot analyses. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 40(7): 1851 - 1854 Turtola S, Rousi M, Pusenius J, Yamaji K, Heiska S, Tirkkonen V, Meier B, and Julkunen-Tiitto R (2005) Clone-specific responses in leaf phenolics of willows exposed to enhanced UVB radiation and drought stress. Global Change Biology 11: 1655 - 1663 Vijayaraghavan S, and Goswami DY (2002) On the calibration of a solar UV radiometer to measure broadband UV radiation from blacklight lamps. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering 124:317 - 319

Warren JM, Bassman JH, Fellman JK, Mattinson DS, and Eigenbrode S (2003) Ultraviolet-B radiation alters phenolic salicylate and flavonoid composition of Populus trichocarpa leaves. Tree Physiology 23: 527 - 535 Wilson SR, and Forgan BW (1995) In situ calibration technique for UV spectral radiometers.

Applied Optics 34(24): 5474 - 5484 WMO (World Meteorological Organization) (1989) Scientific Assessment of Stratospheric Ozone: 1989. Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project. Vol. 1, Report No. 20, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva WMO (2007) Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2006. Global Ozone Research and

Monitoring Project. Report No. 50, p.572, Geneva, Switzerland Worrest RC, Smythe KD, and Tait AM (1989) Linkages between climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion. In: White JC (ed) Global Climate Change Linkages, Acid Rain, Air Quality and Stratospheric Ozone. Elsevier Science, pp.67 - 78

Xu G, and Huang X (2000) Characterization and calibration of broadband ultraviolet radiometers.

Metrologia 37: 235 - 242 Xu G, and Huang X (2003) Calibration of broadband UV radiometers — methodology and uncertainty evaluation. Metrologia 40: S21 - S24 Yankee Environmental Systems, Inc. (2000) UVB-1 Ultraviolet Pyranometer Installation and

User Guide, Version 2.0 Young AT (1981) On the Rayleigh-scattering optical depth of the atmosphere. Journal of Applied Meteorology 20: 328 - 330

Was this article helpful?

0 -1

Post a comment