DIY 3D Solar Panels

Do It Yourself Solar Energy

Get Instant Access

Alpert P, Kishcha P, Kaufman and YJ, Schwarzbard R (2005) Global dimming or local dimming?: Effect of urbanization on sunlight availability. Geophysical Research Letters 32: L17802

Ballare CL, Scopel AL, Stapleton AE, and Yanovsky M J (1996) Solar ultraviolet-B radiation affects seeding emergence, DNA integrity, plant morphology, growth rate, and attractiveness to herbivore insects in Datura ferox. Plant Physiology 112: 161 - 170

Barnes PW, Flint SD, and Caldwell MM (1990a) Morphological responses of crop and weed species of different growth forms to ultraviolet-B radiation. American Journal of Botany 77: 1354 -1360

Barnes PW, Beyschlag W, Ryel RJ, Flint SD, and Caldwell MM (1990b) Plant competition for light analyzed with a multi-species canopy model. IE. Influence of canopy structure in mixtures and monocultures of wheat and wild oat. Oecologia 82: 560 - 566

Barnes PW, Shinkle JR, Flint SD, and Ryel RJ (2005) UV-B radiation: photomorphogenesis and plant-plant interactions. Progress in Botany 66: 313 - 340

Barnes PW, Flint SD, Slusser JR, Gao W, and Ryel RJ (2008) Diurnal changes in epidermal transmittance of plants in naturally high UV environments. Physiologia Plantarum 133: 363 - 372

Becwar MR, Moore III FD, and Burke MJ (1982) Effects of deletion and enhancement of ultraviolet B (280 - 315 nm) radiation on plants grown at 3000 m elevation. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 107: 771 - 774 Black K, Davis P, Lynch P, Jones M, McGettigan M, and Osborne B (2006) Long-term trends in solar irradiance in Ireland and their potential effects on gross primary productivity. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 141: 118 - 132 Bodhaine BA, McKenzie RL, Johnston PV, Hofmann DJ, Dutton EG, Schnell RC, Barnes JE, Ryan SC, and Kotkamp M (1996) New ultraviolet spectroradiometer measurements at Mauna Loa Observatory. Geophysical Research Letters 23: 2121 - 2124 Brutsaert W (2006) Indications of increasing land surface evaporation during the second half of the 20th century. Geophysical Research Letters 33: L20403 Caldwell MM (1971) Solar ultraviolet radiation and the growth and development of higher plants. In: Giese AC (ed) Photophysiology, Vol 6. Academic Press, New York, pp.131 - 177 Caldwell MM, Robberecht R, and Billings WD (1980) A steep latitudinal gradient of solar ultraviolet-B radiation in the arctic-alpine life zone. Ecology 61: 600 - 611 Caldwell MM, Bornman JF, Ballare CL, Flint SD, and Kulandaivelu G (2007) Terrestrial ecosystems, increased solar ultraviolet radiation, and interactions with other climate change factors. Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences 6: 252 - 266 Cohen S, Ianetz A, and Stanhill G (2002) Evaporative climate changes at Bet Dagan, Israel,

1964 - 1998. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 111: 83 - 91 Coleman RS and Day TA (2004) Response of cotton and sorghum to several levels of subambient solar UV-B radiation: a test of the saturation hypothesis. Physiologia Plantarum 122:362 - 372

Costa C, Armstrong R, Detres Y, Koch EW, Bertiller M, Beeskow A, Neves LS, Tourn GM, Bianciotto OA, Pinedo LB, Blessio AY, and San Roman N (2006) Effect of ultraviolet-B radiation on salt marsh vegetation: trends of the genus Salicornia along the Americas. Photochemistry and Photobiology 82: 878 - 886 Cutforth HW and Judiesch D (2007) Long-term changes to incoming solar energy on the

Canadian Prairie. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 145: 167 - 175 Cybulski WJ and Peteijohn WT (1999) Effects of ambient UV-B radiation on the above-

ground biomass of seven temperate-zone plant species. Plant Ecology 145: 175 - 181 Dai Q, Peng S, Chavez AQ, Miranda MLL, Vergara BS, and Olszyk DM (1997) Supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation does not reduce growth or grain yield in rice. Agronomy Journal 89: 793 - 799

Day TA, Martin G, and Vogelmann TC (1993) Penetration of UV-B radiation in foliage: evidence that the epidermis behaves as a non-uniform filter. Plant, Cell and Environment 16(6): 735 - 741

Demmig-Adams B (1990) Carotenoids and phytoprotection: A role for the xanthophyll zeaxanthin. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1020: 1 - 24 Fischer RA (1975) Yield potential in a dwarf spring wheat and the effect of shading. Crop

Science 15: 607 - 613

Flint SD and Caldwell MM (1998) Solar UV-B and visible radiation in tropical forest gaps:

measurements partitioning direct and diffuse radiation. Global Change Biology 4: 863 - 870 Flint SD and Caldwell MM (2003) A biological spectral weighting function for ozone depletion research with higher plants. Physiologia Plantarum 117: 137 - 144 Flint SD, Jordan PW, and Caldwell MM (1985) Plant protective response to enhanced UV-B radiation under field conditions: Leaf optical properties and photosynthesis. Photochemistry and Photobiology 41: 95 - 99 Flint SD, Ryel RJ, and Caldwell MM (2003) Ecosystem UV-B experiments in terrestrial communities: a review of recent findings and methodologies. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 120: 177 - 189 Häder DP (1996) Effects of solar radiation on local and German wheat seedlings in a Chilean high mountain station. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 35: 181 -187

Ibdah M, Krins A, Seidlitz HK, Heller W, Strack D, and Vogt T (2002) Spectral dependence of flavonol and betacyanin accumulation in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum under enhanced ultraviolet radiation. Plant, Cell and Environment 25: 1145 - 1154 Jauregui E and Luyando E (1999) Global radiation attenuation by air pollution and its effects on the thermal climate in Mexico City. International Journal of Climatology 19: 683 - 694 Kostinski AB (2001) Extinction of radiation by a homogeneous but spatially correlated random medium. Journal of the Optical Society of America 18: 1929 - 1933 Kolb CA and Pfündel EE (2005) Origins of non-linear and dissimilar relationships between epidermal UV absorbance and UV absorbance of extracted phenolics in leaves of grapevine and barley. Plant, Cell and Environment 25: 580 - 590 Kotilainen T, Tegelberg R, Julkunen-Tiitto R, Lindfors A and Aphalo PJ (2008) Metabolite specific effects of solar UV-A and UV-B on alder and birch leaf phenolics. Global Change Biology 14: 1294 - 1304 Krause GH, Galle A, Gademann R, and Winter K (2003) Capacity of protection against ultraviolet radiation in sun and shade leaves of tropical forest plants. Functional Plant Biology 30: 533 - 542

Krizek DT (2004) Influence of PAR and UV-A in determining plant sensitivity and photomorphogenic responses to UV-B radiation. Photochemistry and Photobiology 79: 307 - 315

Lambers H, Chapin III FS, and Pons TL (1998) Plant Physiological Ecology. Springer, New

York, Berlin, Heidelberg. p.540 Li HB, Robock A, and Wild M (2007) Evaluation of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment soil moisture simulations for the second half of the twentieth century. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 112: D06106 Liepert BG and Romanou A (2005) Global dimming and brightening and the water cycle.

Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 86: 622 - 623 Lingakumar K, Amudha P, and Kulandaivelu G (1999) Exclusion of solar UV-B (280 nm -315 nm) radiation on vegetative growth and photosynthetic activities in Vigna unguiculata L. Plant Science 148: 97 - 103

Lohmann S, Schillings C, Mayer B, and Meyer R (2006) Long-term variability of solar direct and global radiation derived from ISCCP data and comparison with reanalysis data. Solar Energy 80: 1390 - 1401

Ma J and Guicherit R (1997) Effects of stratospheric ozone depletion and tropospheric pollution on UV radiation in the troposphere. Photochemistry and Photobiology 66: 346 - 355

Mark U, Saile-Mark M, and Tevini M (1996) Effects of solar UVB radiation on growth, flowering and yield of central and southern European maize cultivars (Zea mays L.). Photochemistry and Photobiology 64: 457 - 463 Mazza CA, Boccalandro HE, Giordano CV, Battista D, Scopel AL, and Ballare CL (2000) Functional significance and induction by solar radiation of ultraviolet-absorbing sunscreens in field-grown soybean crops. Plant Physiology 122: 117 - 125 McKenzie RL, Seckmeyer G, Bais AF, Kerr JB, and Madronich SA (2001) Satellite retrievals of erythemal UV dose compared with ground-based measurements at northern and southern midlatitudes. Journal of Geophysical Research D 106: 24051 - 24062 McKenzie R, Aucamp P, Bais A, Björn L, and Ilyas M (2007) Changes in biologically-active ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface. Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences 6: 218 - 231

McKinlay AF, and Diffey BL (1987) A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin. CIE Journal 6: 17 - 22 Milchunas DG, King JY, Mosier AR, Moore JC, Morgan JA, Quirk MH, and Slusser JR (2004) UV radiation effects on plant growth and forage quality in a shortgrass steppe ecosystem. Photochemistry and Photobiology 79: 404 - 410 Nazarenko L and Menon S (2005) Varying trends in surface energy fluxes and associated climate between 1960 and 2002 based on transient climate simulations. Geophysical Research Letters 32: L22704

Norris JR and Wild M (2007) Trends in aerosol radiative effects over Europe inferred from observed cloud cover, solar "dimming" and solar "brightening". Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 112: D08214 Nullet D and Juvik JO (1997) Measured altitudinal profiles of UV-B irradiance in Hawaii.

Physical Geography 18: 335 - 345 Pal M, Sharma A, Abrol Y, and Sengupta U (1997) Exclusion of UV-B radiation from normal solar spectrum on the growth of mung bean and maize. Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment 61: 29 - 34 Pinker RT, Zhang B, and Dutton EG (2005) Do satellites detect trends in surface solar radiation? Science 308: 850 - 854

Quaite FE, Sutherland BM, and Sutherland JC (1992) Action spectrum for DNA damage in alfalfa lowers predicted impact of ozone depletion. Nature 358: 576 - 578 Ramana MV and Ramanathan V (2006) Abrupt transition from natural to anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing: Observations at the ABC-Maldives Climate Observatory. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 111: D20207 Raveh E, Cohen S, Raz T, Yakir D, Grava A, and Goldschmidt E (2003) Increased growth of young citrus trees under reduced radiation load in a semi-arid climate. Journal of

Experimental Botany 54: 365 - 373 Raviv M and Antignus Y (2004) UV radiation effects on pathogens and insect pests of greenhouse-grown crops. Photochemistry and Photobiology 79: 219 - 226 Rinnan R, Keinanen MM, Kasurinen A, Asikainen J, Kekki TK, Holopainen T, Ro-Poulsen H, Mikkelsen TN, and Michelsen A (2005) Ambient ultraviolet radiation in the Arctic reduces root biomass and alters microbial community composition but has no effects on microbial biomass. Global Change Biology 11: 564 - 574 Rinnan R, Gehrke C, and Michelsen A (2006) Two mire species respond differently to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation: effects on biomass allocation and root exudation. New Phytologist 169: 809 - 818

Robock A and Li HB (2006) Solar dimming and CO2 effects on soil moisture trends. Geophysical

Research Letters 33: L20708 Robson TM, Pancotto VA, Flint SD, Ballare CL, Sala OE, Scopel AL, and Caldwell MM (2003) Six years of solar UV-B manipulations affect growth of Sphagnum and vascular plants in a Tierra del Fuego peatland. New Phytologist 160: 379 - 389 Robson TM, Pancotto VA, Scopel AL, Flint SD, and Caldwell MM (2005) Solar UV-B influences microfaunal community composition in a Tierra del Fuego peatland. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 37: 2205 - 2215 Roderick M (2006) The ever-flickering light. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21: 3 - 5 Roderick ML and Farquhar GC (2002) The cause of decreased pan evaporation over the past

50 years. Science 298: 1410 - 1411 Roderick ML, Farquhar GD, Berry SL, and Noble IR (2001) On the direct effect of clouds and atmospheric particles on the productivity and structure of vegetation. Oecologia 129: 21 - 30

Ryel RJ, Barnes PW, Beyschlag W, Caldwell MM, and Flint SD (1990) Plant competition for light analyzed with a multispecies canopy model. I. Model development and influence of enhanced UV-B conditions on photosynthesis in mixed wheat and wild oat canopies. Oecologia 82: 304 - 310 Schiermeier Q (2005) Cleaner skies leave global warming forecasts uncertain. Nature 435: 135 -135

Searles PS, Caldwell MM, and Winter K (1995) The response of five tropical dicotyledon species to solar ultraviolet-B radiation. American Journal of Botany 82: 445 - 453 Searles PS, Flint SD, and Caldwell MM (2001) A meta-analysis of plant field studies simulating stratospheric ozone depletion. Oecologia 127: 1 - 10 Stanhill G and Cohen S (2001) Global dimming: a review of the evidence for a widespread and significant reduction in global radiation with discussion of its probable causes and possible agricultural consequences. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 107: 255 - 278 Visser AJ, Tosserams M, Groen MW, Magendans GWH, and Rozema J (1997) The combined effects of CO2 concentration and solar UV-B radiation on faba bean grown in open-top chambers. Plant, Cell and Environment 20: 189 - 199 Werner C, Ryel RJ, Correia O, and Beyschlag W (2001) Effects of photoinhibition on whole-plant carbon gain assessed with a photoinhibition model. Plant, Cell and Environment 24: 27 - 40

Wild M, Gilgen H, Roesch A, Ohmura A, Long CN, Dutton EG, Forgan B, Kallis A, Russak V, and Tsvetkov A (2005) From dimming to brightening: Decadal changes in solar radiation at Earth's surface. Science 308: 847 - 850 Yang Y, Yao Y, Xu, G, and Li C (2005) Growth and physiological responses to drought and elevated ultraviolet-B in two contrasting populations of Hippophae rhamnoides. Physiologia Plantarum 124: 431 - 440 Zaller JG, Caldwell MM, Flint SD, Scopel AL, Sala OE, and Ballaré CL (2002) Solar UV-B radiation affects below-ground parameters in a fen ecosystem in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina: implications of stratospheric ozone depletion. Global Change Biology 8: 867 - 871 Zavala J, Scopel AL, and Ballaré CL (2001) Effects of ambient UV-B radiation on soybean crops: Impact on leaf herbivory by Anticarsia gemmatalis. Plant Ecology 156: 121 - 130

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Getting Started With Solar

Getting Started With Solar

Do we really want the one thing that gives us its resources unconditionally to suffer even more than it is suffering now? Nature, is a part of our being from the earliest human days. We respect Nature and it gives us its bounty, but in the recent past greedy money hungry corporations have made us all so destructive, so wasteful.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment