This review is based on recent UNEP Effects Panel reports (UNEP, 2008), and a paper in press (McKenzie et al., 2008). We acknowledge the contributions from our co-author, Lars Olof Björn. We are grateful to NIWA Lauder staff including Michael Kotkamp for maintaining the spectral UV observations, Dan Smale for carrying out the radiative transfer calculations, and Paul Johnston for many useful insights. We also thank Dr. Sasha Madronich of the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO, USA, for providing the UV climatologies.
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