Figures

1.1 Why the tropics are colder than the poles 3

1.2 How the tilt of the earth's axis a fleets the angle of the sun, giving the seasons 4

1.3 Why the upper parts of mountains arc colder 5

1.4 How mid-altitude warm belts form 5

1.5 The intertropical convergence zone 7

1.6 (a) The Coriolis effect, (b) The Ekman spiral 8

1.7 The thermohaline circulation in the Atlantic 11

1.8 Antarctica is cut off by a continuous belt of winds and currents 14

1.9 How the rain-making machine of the tropics works 16

1.10 How the monsoon rains move north then south of the equator during the year 17

1.11 Cold seawater prevents rainfall bringing about a coastal desert 18

1.12* A view off the coast of Peru 19

2.1* (a) Map of major biome distributions 22

2.1* (b) Areas of the most intense human alteration of vegetation 23

2.2* Buttress roots in a tropical rainforest tree 24

2.3* Drip tips on leaves of a rainforest tree shortly after a thunderstorm 25

2.4* An epiphyte growing on a tropical rainforest tree 25

2.5 General form of vegetation: (a) forest, (b) woodland, (c) scrub, (d) grassland,

2.6* Tropical rainforest, Malaysia 28

2.7* Cold climate conifer forest, mountains of California 28

2.8* Evergreen oak scrub, southeastern Iran 29

2.9* Grassland, California 29

2.10* Tundra, above treeline in the Andes, Chile 30

2.11* Semi-desert, Mohave Desert, Arizona 30

2.12* Semi-desert, Iran 31

2.13* Treeline on a mountain 34

2.14* Autumn colors in a northern temperate deciduous tree 37

* See also color section.

2.15 The relationship between January temperature and leafing out date 39

2.16* Toothed or lobed leaves are far more prevalent in cooler climate forests ... 39

2.17 The proportion of species of trees with "entire" (non-toothed) leaves 40

2.18 Latitudinal bands of alternating evergreen and deciduous forest 41

2.19 Holdridge's predictive scheme for relating biomes to climate 48

2.20 Tree species richness map of parts of eastern Asia (eastern Russia, Japan, Taiwan) 52

3.1 Temperature history of the last 700.000 years showing sawtooth pattern ... 56

3.2 Distribution of forest vs desert, (a) present day and (b) last glacial maximum (18.000 ,4C years) compared 58

3.3 Biome distributions of Europe, North America at the present day and last glacial maximum (22,000-14,000 }AC years ago) 60

3.4* Temperature zones in the USA for the last glacial maximum and present day compared 62

3.5 Maps of migration rate of spruce and oak in the pollen record 65

3.6 Temperature history of the late glacial 66

3.7* The greening trend around the Arctic from satellite data 69

3.8 Arctic shrub cover change 70

3.9 Sugar maple extends from southeastern Canada to the south-central USA. . 74

4.1 The boundary layer over a surface 81

4.2 Shrubs trap more heat amongst their branches than trees do 83

4.3* An alpine cushion plant, Silene exscapa 84

4.4* This speeies of Begonia lives in the understory of mountain rainforests 89

4.5 Distribution of temperatures on a sunny summer's day on a hill 91

4.6 Temperature profile against height on a cold spring morning in a Pennsylvania valley that acts as a frost hollow 93

4.7 The daisyworld model of Lovelock 97

5.1 Ascending air over a dark surface cools and condenses out water droplets . . 104

5.2 How positive feedback affects the slope of a response 106

5.3 A metastable system has multiple states 107

5.4 The Sahel, at the southern border of the Sahara desert 108

5.5 Temperature map for a warm day in northeastern Colorado 116

5.6* The distribution of vegetation zones of (a) the present-day and (b) the Holocene

"Green Sahara" (8,000 7,000 HC years ago) 119

5.7 Summer solar energy input, yearly temperature, rainfall and land surface vegetation cover in the Sahara over the past 9,000 years 122

6.1 Some of the ways in which forests modify temperature 134

6.2 As the leaves come out, the progressive warming into spring halts for a few days 136

6.3 (a) In the tropical rainforest, loss of latent heat uptake and roughness dominates, (b) In boreal forest the albedo effect dominates 138

6.4* Global temperature history of the last 2,000 years 145

6.5 Scene from a frozen river in Holland, 1608 146

7.1 Some basic components of the carbon cycle 154

7.2 A huge amount of CO2 is stored in the form of both bicarbonate and dissolved

CO2 in the ocean 156

7.3 Estimated CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere over the last several hundred million years 158

7.4 One of the thousands of species of lichens- -symbiotic combinations of a fungus and aka 162

Figures xvii

7.5 Results of an experiment that compared the amounts of salts (derived from weathering) turning up in rainwater that had run off lichen-covered rocks . . 163

7.6 History of temperature and atmospheric CO*, deduced from polar ice cores 166

7.7 How plankton activity may have decreased the CO2 concentration during glacials 167

7.8 The distribution of forest and desert in (a) the present natural world and (b) the last glacial maximum or LGM (18,000 ] iC years ago) 169

7.9 How the land reservoir of carbon may help keep up CO: concentrations in the atmosphere when the oceans are dragging carbon down 170

7.10 Ice core record of atmospheric CO2 since 1000 ad 173

7.11* Annual net flux of carbon to the atmosphere from land use change: 1850 2000 175

7.12 The record of atmospheric CO2 increase since the 1950s 176

7.13 The seasonal cycle in CO^ concentration varies with latitude 177

7.14 "Lightening" of the isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 over time. . . . 180

7.15 A carbon isotope shift around 7 million years ago indicates that C4 plants suddenly became much more common 181

7.16* This map shows the strength of correlation between temperature and global

CO2 increment each vear 182

7.17 The strength of the seasonal CO2 wiggle is strongly related to the state of the North Atlantic Oscillation 185

7.18 Model results with and without the "gushing out" of carbon that would result from warming affecting the carbon balance of forests 189

8.1 Key steps in photosynthesis which are altered by COi concentrations 193

8.2 The three types of increased COi experiment 198

8.3 The Tennesee FACE site showing the towers used to release CO2 into the forest 199

8.4 Aerial view of the Tennessee FACE experiment showing rings of towers . . . 200

8.5 The Swiss FACE site on mature mixed temperate forest 200

8.6* Scientists at the Swiss FACG site inspect the forest canopy for direct CO2 effects using a crane 201

8.7 The sequence of reactions in a CA leaf 208

8.8 Stomatal index vs CO: concentration in the clubmoss Selaginel/a selaginelloides 213

8.9 The shift in |JC in ancient soils in North America, indicating a "take-over" by

C4 plants 223

Getting Started With Solar

Getting Started With Solar

Do we really want the one thing that gives us its resources unconditionally to suffer even more than it is suffering now? Nature, is a part of our being from the earliest human days. We respect Nature and it gives us its bounty, but in the recent past greedy money hungry corporations have made us all so destructive, so wasteful.

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