Structure of Model TC

Evans (1993) argued that it is important to examine the degree to which the model vortices have physical similarities with real TCs. Here we present the structure of the simulated TC. Figure 2 shows the horizontal and vertical structures of several quantities in a TC simulated in the model. In common with observed TCs, there is low sea level pressure accompanied by cyclonic circulations with stronger surface winds on the right hand side (Figs. 2a and b). The surface wind speed at 10 m exceeds 20 m s-1. The cyclonic circulations of the model TCs extend up to near 200 hPa (Fig. 2c), with warm cores from 700 hPa to 200 hPa (Fig. 2d). Although the model used in the present study cannot simulate the eye wall structure because of the insufficient resolution, the above features of the simulated TC are in reasonable

Fig. 2 (a) Sea Level Pressure. Contour interval is 5 hPa. (b) Wind vector and speed at 10 m. Contour interval is 5 m/s. (c) Vertical section of meridional wind. Contour interval is 10 m/s. (d) Vertical temperature anomalies. Contour interval is 1 K

agreement with the observations (e.g., Frank 1977) and the model TC simulated in other GCM (e.g., Wu and Lau 1992; Tsutsui and Kasahara 1996; Vitart et al. 1997).

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Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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