Causes of mass extinction at the KPg boundary A case study

from the North African Plate 133

Ashraf M. T. Elewa and Ahmed M. Dakrory

11.1 Introduction 133

11.2 Material and methods 134

11.3 Quantitative results 135

11.3.1 Cluster analysis 135

11.3.2 Principal coordinate analysis 137

11.4 Qualitative results 138

11.5 Discussion and conclusions 142

11.6 Acknowledgements 146

References 147

12 Patterns and causes of mass extinction at the K/Pg boundary: Planktonic foraminifera from the North African Plate ...149

Ashraf M. T. Elewa and Ahmed M. Dakrory

12.1 Introduction 149

12.2 Stratigraphy 150

12.2.1 Sudr Chalk 150

12.2.2 Dakhla Formation 151

12.3 Material and methods 151

12.4 Results and discussion 153

12.5 Acknowledgements 157

References 158

13 Quaternary extinctions in Southeast Asia 159

Julien Louys

13.1 Introduction 159

13.2 The Quaternary "megafauna" extinctions 160

13.2.1 What are megafauna? 160

13.2.2 The debate 160

13.2.3 Towards a reconciliation 164

13.3 Quaternary Extinctions in Southeast Asia 165

13.3.1 Geography of Southeast Asia 165

13.3.2 Geological History 166

13.3.3 Climate 168

13.3.4 Vegetation 168

13.3.5 Sea level changes 170

13.4 Southeast Asia's megafauna 172

13.4.1 Dubois's Antelope 172

13.4.2 Yunnan Horse 172

13.4.3 Asian Gazelle 173

13.4.4 Giant Ape 173

13.4.5 Robust Macaque 173

13.4.6 Giant Hyena 174

13.4.7 Rhinoceroses 174

13.4.8 Pigs 174

13.4.9 Stegodons 175

13.4.10 Malayan Tapir 175

13.4.11 Giant Tapir 176

13.4.12 Serow 176

13.4.13 Giant Panda 176

13.4.14 Asian Spotted Hyena 176

13.4.15 Archaic elephant 177

13.4.16 Orangutan 177

13.5 Human overhunting in Southeast Asia? 177

13.6 Climate change and megafauna 178

13.7 The modern extinction crisis 181

13.8 Summary 182

13.9 Acknowledgements 183

References 183

14 Current mass extinction 191

Ashraf M. T. Elewa

15 Current insect extinctions 195

Panos V. Petrakis

15.1 Introduction 195

15.2 Insect mass extinctions in the past 197

15.3 Types of current insect extinctions 200

15.3.1 Lessons from island ecology 202

15.3.2 Insect extinctions induced by changes in succession status 204

15.3.3 Insect extinctions from climate change 206

15.4 The prediction of certain insect extinctions 209

15.4.1 The Darwin-Lyell extinction model 209

15.4.2 The Raup extinction model and the kill curve 210

15.4.3 Causes of current insect extinction 212

15.4.4 Climate change 212

15.4.5 Habitat fragmentation, destruction, modification 217

15.4.6 Species invasions / introductions 221

15.4.7 Co-extinctions 223

15.4.8 Hybridization and introgression 225

15.5 Conservation of insect species and their biodiversities 227

15.5.1 Estimating conservation priority 227

15.5.2 Conserving insects through habitat/plant conservation 234

15.5.3 Conserving insect biodiversity in city parks and road verges 237

15.6 Acknowledgements 240

References 240

Index 251

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