Replace Toxic Products in your home
The concentrations of detergent that actually find their way into wastewaters and surface water bodies have quite diverse origins (a) Soaps and detergents, as well as their component compounds, are introduced into wastewaters and water bodies at the point of their manufacture, at storage facilities and distribution warehouses, and at points of accidental spills on their routes of transportation (the origin of pollution is dealt with in this chapter). (b) The additional industrial origin of detergent pollution notably results from the use of surfactants in various industries, such as textiles, cosmetics, leather tanning and products, paper, metals, dyes and paints, production of domestic soaps and detergents, and from the use of detergents in commercial industrial laundries and dry cleaners. (c) The contribution from agricultural activities is due to the surface runoff transporting of surfactants that are included in the formulation of insecticides and fungicides 27 . (d) The origin...
There is an upper limit of surfactant concentration in natural waters above which the existence of aquatic life, particularly higher animal life, is endangered. Trout are particularly sensitive to concentrations as low as 1 ppm and show symptoms similar to asphyxia 4 . On the other hand, numerous studies, which extended over a period of months and required test animals to drink significantly high doses of surfactants, showed absolutely no apparent ill effects due to digested detergents. Also, there are no instances in which the trace amounts of detergents present in drinking water were directly connected to adverse effects on human health. strength surfactant products, and (b) chronic pollution due to the daily discharges of municipal and industrial wastewaters. The international literature contains the result of numerous studies that have established dosages for both types of pollutional toxicity due to detergents, for most types of aquatic life such as species of fish.
Inorganic gels exhibiting ion-exchange and sorption characteristics are more stable than synthetic organic resins, which have also been used for the removal of detergents from wastewaters 95 . The sorption efficiency and number of cycles for which inorganic gels can be used without much loss in sorption capacity would compensate the cost involved in their preparation. Zinc and copper ferrocyanide have been shown to possess promising sorption characteristics for cationic and anionic surfactants. Of the two, copper ferrocyanide is a better scavenger for anionic detergents, which have a relatively small rate and degree of biodegradation and their presence in raw water causes problems in coagulation and sedimentation.
Aluminum and galvanized steel are prone to develop an oxide coating that acts as a barrier to chemical conversion coatings. However, these oxide films are easier to remove than rust and, therefore, require a less vigorous cleaning process. A mild alkaline cleaner is usually applied with power spray equipment to remove the oxide coating and other interfering substances. The cleaning solutions normally used consist of combinations of sodium carbonates, phosphates, silicates, and hydroxides. These compounds give the solution its alkaline character and emulsify the removed soils. Soap and detergents may be added to the solution to lower the surface and interfacial tension.
When the primary target is oil removal, we should distinguish between the forms of oil. There are two forms of oil that we find in wastewater. Free oil is oil that will separate naturally and float to the surface. Emulsified oil is oil that is held in suspension by a chemical substance (Detergents - Surfactants) or electrical energy. When making an evaluation, free oil will normally separate by gravity and float to the surface in approximately 30 minutes. Emulsified oil is held in a molecular
Ideal energy substrates for the majority of microorganisms, but also the main carbon sources for biotechnological production processes. Biotransformation of hexoses to gluconic acid, itaconic acid, citric acid and lactic acid is performed on a large scale to produce basic ingredients for laundry detergents, glues, preservatives and polylactides, respectively. Polylactides are polymers of lactic acid with a molecular mass of 40 000300 000 Da. The lactic acid is produced with lactobacilli. The recovery of lactic acid from alfalfa or soya fibres that were enzymatically digested with cellulases and pectinases, and fermented with lactobacilli, was 32-46 g per 100 g of fibres (Sreenath et al., 2001). The properties of polylactides depend on the proportion and the distribution of d(-) and l(+)-lactic acid isomers in the polymer. Poly-l-lactic acid and poly-d-lactic acid are crystalline polymers, whereas poly-d,l-lactic acid with a regularly alternating d- and l-isomer array is an amorphous...
As mentioned previously, the Siallon process of microencapsulation is a simple two-step procedure. The first step, the emulsification of the hydrocarbon, is the heart of the process. Surfactant chemistry shows that when a hydrophobic material is emulsified it forms a micelle 13 within the aqueous phase. This micelle is composed of a droplet of hydrocarbon surrounded by surfactant or emulsifier. The reason for this is the molecular structure of the surfactant. Mo-lecularly all surfactants, emulsifiers, wetting agents, and detergents have a common structure, a hydrophobic or oil-loving tail that is oil-soluble and a terminal hydrophilic or water-loving portion or head that is water-soluble. The hydrophobic tail will attach itself to the hydrocarbon particle, with the hydrophilic head conferring water solubility on the entire molecule. As emulsion proceeds, more and more surfactant molecules attach to the hydrocarbon particle in the same orientation. Such extremely close packing of the...
Increasing public awareness about healthy, natural and non-toxic products, and strict environmental regulations have acted as an impetus for the supercritical fluid industry. Moreover, the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and food industries have also promoted developments in this area of research (Schneider et al., 1980 Stahl et al., 1988 McHugh and Krukonis, 1994 Rizvi, 1994 Clifford, 1999 Kiran et al., 2000 Mukhopadhyay, 2000).
There are several types of surfactants which aid in destroying pathogens. The cationic detergents readily kill pathogens. Anionic detergents are only weakly effective in destroying pathogens. Surfactants have not been seriously considered for treating drinking water because of their objectionable flavor and possible toxic effects. Chlorine dioxide has unusually good germ killing power. Up to the present time, no valid tests for its use have been developed because of the lack of means for determining low residual concentrations of this agent. It's such a strong oxidizing agent, a larger residual of chlorine dioxide would probably be needed than is the case with chlorine. At present, chlorination in one form or another is regarded as the most effective disinfectant available for all general purposes. It has full acceptance of health authorities. Still there are certain factors which affect its ability to disinfect waters. These should always be kept in mind. They are
Surface preparation is an important step in the shipbuilding industry. Common surface preparation methods adopted by shipyards are dry and wet abrasive blasting, hydroblasting, thermal, chemical, and mechanical stripping. Material inputs used for preparing surfaces include abrasive materials such as steel shot or grit, glass, garnet, copper, or coal slag cleaning water detergents and chemical paint strippers. In the case of hydroblasting only water and occasionally rust inhibitors are required. required by the paint that is to be applied, the size and shape of the surface to be prepared, and the type of metal. Common surface preparation methods adopted by the shipyards are dry abrasive blasting, wet abrasive blasting, hydroblasting, thermal stripping, chemical stripping and mechanical stripping. Material inputs used for preparing surfaces include, abrasive materials such as steel shot or grit, glass, garnet, copper, or coal slag cleaning water, detergents, and chemical paint strippers...
Membrane fouling can be greatly reduced in several ways. One effective way is to provide pretreatment to the feed liquids. Some simple adjustments, such as varying pH values and using hydrophilic membrane materials, can also provide some relief from membrane fouling. There are also persistent interests in modifying membrane properties to minimize the membrane-fouling tendency around the world. Because membrane fouling is intimately associated with the concentration polarization phenomenon, any action taken to minimize concentration polarization will also help reduce membrane fouling. Fouled membranes can be cleaned and they regain some of the original performance. Frequent cleaning and washing with detergents will inevitably lead to the demise of the membrane. There are three basic types of cleaning methods currently used hydraulic flushing (back-flushing), mechanical cleaning (only in tubular systems) with sponge balls, and chemical washing. When using chemicals to perform defouling,...
Most soap and detergent manufacturing facilities, as mentioned previously, discharge their untreated or pretreated wastes into municipal systems. The compositions of these wastewaters vary widely, with some being readily biodegradable and others inhibitory to normal biological treatment processes. In order to allow and surcharge such an effluent to a municipal treatment plant, an evaluation of its treatability is required. Such a detailed assessment of the wastewaters discharged from a factory manufacturing detergents and cleaning materials in the vicinity of Pinxton, England, was reported by Shapland 92 . The average weekly effluent discharged from a small collection and equalization tank was 119 m3 day (21.8 gpm), which contributes about 4 of the flow to the Pinxton sewage treatment plant.
Two interhalogens having strong disinfecting properties are iodine monochloride (IC1) and iodine bromide (IBr). Iodine monochloride has found use as a topical antiseptic. It may be complexed with nonionic or anionic detergents to yield bactericides and fungicides that can be used in cleansing or sanitizing formulations. These generally have a polymer structure which establishes its great stability, increased solubility, and lower volatility. By reducing the free halogen concentration in solution, polymers reduce both the chemical and bactericidal activity. Complexes of IC1 are useful disinfectants which compromise lower bactericidal activity with increased stability. Iodine monochloride is itself a highly reactive compound, reacting with many metals to produce metal chlorides. Under normal conditions it will not react with tantalum, chromium, molybdenum, zirconium, tungsten, or platinum. With organic compounds, reactions cause iodination, chlorination, decomposition, or the generation...
One of the most important active ingredients of detergents is the sulfate or sulfonate compounds made via the oleum route. A process flow diagram is shown in Figure 9. In most cases, the sulfonation sulfation is carried out continuously in a reactor where the oleum (a solution of sulfur trioxide in sulfuric acid) is brought into contact with the hydrocarbon or alcohol and a
Historically, aqueous solutions have been used extensively throughout the industry. In recent years, their use has increased as environmental concerns and regulatory restrictions placed solvent cleaners under more scrutiny. Aqueous cleaning comprises a wide range of water-based cleaning methods that use detergents, acids, and alkaline compounds to displace soil rather than dissolving it in organic solvent. Aqueous cleaning has been found to be a viable substitute for solvents in many parts cleaning operations. Some types of aqueous cleaning may not be suitable for electronic components since they may leave conductive residue. The principal disadvantage of aqueous cleaning is that the parts are wet after cleaning and ferrous parts easily rust. However, the use of warm (140-150 F) air for drying is less costly than the expense associated with solvent usage and disposal, and there are additives available to prevent short term rusting. Another possibility is to use a hot water rinse...
Studies of the responses of organisms to cold have yielded, or have the potential to produce, a wide range of practical applications. These include the control of pests by influencing or predicting their survival overwinter and improved methods for cryopreserving organisms and biological materials. Cold-adapted enzymes from psychrophilic microorganisms and polar fish may have applications in the food industry, in biotechnology, laundry detergents and in the treatment of wastewater. Cold-adapted microbes themselves are used for the cold fermentation of beer and wine and for the ripening of cheeses and other foods.
Foam separation or fractionation 40,41,43-45 can be used to extra advantage not only do surfactants congregate at the air liquid interfaces, but other colloidal materials and ionized compounds that form a complex with the surfactants tend to also be concentrated by this method. An incidental, but often important, advantage of air flotation processes is the aerobic condition developed, which tends to stabilize the sludge and skimmings so that they are less likely to turn septic. However, disposal means for the foamate can be a serious problem in the use of this procedure 46 . It has been reported that foam separation has been able to remove 70-80 of synthetic detergents, at a wide range of costs 2 . Gibbs 17 reported the successful use of fine bubble flotation and 40 mm detention in treating soap manufacture wastes, where the skimmed sludge was periodically returned to the soap factory for reprocessing. According to Wang 47-49 , the dissolved air flotation process is both technically...
The impact of dairy processing on the environment has been summarised in the schematic in Fig. 14.3. This diagram shows the inputs and outputs for a typical dairy manufacturing plant producing market milk, butter, milk powder and cheese. Inputs include the raw milk, other ingredients, water, energy, detergents, refrigerants and packaging. Outputs include dairy products a range of dairy liquid effluents such as cleaning-in-place (CIP) cleaning waste, cheese whey and spills air emissions such as combustion gases and milk powder dust and solid wastes such as damaged stock or
These regulatory programs may affect metal fabricators in two ways (1) compliance with the local programs will often require capital investments to upgrade the plants and will require time for the plants to develop their permit applications and hazardous material management plans and (2) since the local program's permit fees are based on the type and quantity of hazardous materials stored at a plant, decisions on source segregation and batch treatment of wastes and the storage and use of hazardous materials will be influenced by these local ordinances. The impact of item (1) may be a reduction in the capital and time metal fabricators are able to allocate to address waste reduction. On the other hand, because of the additional public scrutiny, there is added incentive to implement source reduction and recycling techniques that can reduce the quantities of hazardous materials present on site, and thus, the associated liabilities as well. Source reduction techniques which right-to-know...
Phosphorus is unusual in its chemistry compared to the other elements discussed here in that it exists in the environment almost completely in the P(V) oxidation state of phosphate, P04 . Therefore, except in very small amounts occurring in atmospheric particles, the atmosphere is essentially not a reservoir for phosphorus and does not participate in its biogeochemical cycling. However, phosphorus is an extremely important constituent in all living things, forming the backbone of DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid. It is also the main source of cellular energy, in the form of ATP, adenosine triphosphate. The natural cycling of phosphorus, therefore, is completely intertwined with biospheric interaction. In the ocean, phosphorus in surface waters is rapidly taken up by biota which sink to lower depths and decompose. On land, phosphorus enters the soil through the decay of dead organic material. As mentioned in Chapter 8, the soil is eventually transported by rivers, and eventually lays down in...
The manufacture of phosphorus-derived chemicals is almost entirely based on the production of elemental phosphorus from mined phosphate rock. Ferrophosphorus, widely used in the metallurgical industries, is a direct byproduct of the phosphorus production process. In the United States, over 85 of elemental phosphorus production is used to manufacture high-grade phosphoric acid by the furnace or dry process as opposed to the wet process that converts phosphate rock directly into low-grade phosphoric acid. The remainder of the elemental phosphorus is either marketed directly or converted into phosphorus chemicals. The furnacegrade phosphoric acid is marketed directly, mostly to the food and fertilizer industries. Finally, phosphoric acid is employed to manufacture sodium tripolyphosphate, which is used in detergents and for water treatment, and calcium phosphate, which is used in foods and animal feeds.
Generally, two methods of disinfection are used chemical and physical. The chemical methods, of course, use chemical agents, and the physical methods use physical agents. Historically, the most widely used chemical agent is chlorine. Other chemical agents that have been used include ozone, ClO2, the halogens bromine and iodine and bromine chloride, the metals copper and silver, KMnO4, phenol and phenolic compounds, alcohols, soaps and detergents, quaternary ammonium salts, hydrogen peroxide, and various alkalis and acids. In general, the effect of disinfectants is thought to occur as a result of damage to the cell wall, alteration of cell permeability, alteration of the protoplasm, and inhibition of enzymatic activities. Damage to the cell wall results in cell lysis and death. Some agents such as phenolic compounds and detergents alter the permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane. This causes the membrane to lose selectivity to substances and allow important nutrients such as...
Soap manufacture Batch kettle and continuous A Fatty acid manufacture by fat splitting B Soap from fatty acid neutralization C Glycerine recovery Glycerine concentration D Glycerine distillation E Soap flakes and powders F Bar soaps G Liquid soap H Detergent manufacture Oleum sulfonation and sulfation (batch and continuous) I Air-SO3 sulfation and sulfonation (batch and continuous) J SO3 solvent and vacuum sulfonation K Sulfamic acid sulfation L Chlorosulfonic acid sulfation M Neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids N Spray-dried detergents O Liquid detergent manufacture P Detergent manufacture by dry blending Q Drum-dried detergents R _Detergent bars and cakes__S
Possibly the most representative treatment facility that handles wastewaters from the production of soaps, detergents, glycerines, and personal care products is Colgate-Palmolive Company's plant at Jeffersonville, IN 3 . The production wastes had received treatment since 1968 21 in a completely mixed activated sludge plant with a 0.6 MGD design flow and consisting of a 0.5 MG mixed equalization and storage basin, aeration basin, and final clarifier. The treated effluent was discharged to the Ohio River, combined with rain drainage and cooling waters. During operation, it was observed that waste overloads to the plant caused a deterioration of effluent quality and that the system recovered very slowly, particularly from surfactant short-term peaks. In addition, the fact that ABS had been eliminated and more LAS and nonionic surfactants were being produced, as well as the changes in product formulation, may have been the reasons for the Colgate treatment plant's generally less than...
This industry produces liquid and solid cleaning agents for domestic and industrial use, including laundry, dishwashing, bar soaps, specialty cleaners, and industrial cleaning products. It can be broadly divided (Fig. 1) into two categories (a) soap manufacture that petrochemicals. The information presented here includes establishments primarily involved in the production of soap, synthetic organic detergents, inorganic alkaline detergents, or any combinations of these, and plants producing crude and refined glycerine from vegetable and animal fats and oils. Types of facilities not discussed here include plants primarily involved in the production of shampoo or shaving creams soaps, whether from soap or surfactants, and of synthetic glycerine as well as specialty cleaners, polishing and sanitation preparations.
Significant reduction of water usage is possible in the manufacture of liquid detergents (P) by the installation of water recycle piping and tankage and by the use of air rather than water to blowdown filling lines. In the production of bar soaps (G), the volume of discharge and the level of contamination can be reduced materially by installation of an atmospheric flash evaporator ahead of the vacuum drier. Finally, pollutant carryover from distillation columns such as those used in glycerine concentration (D) or fatty acid separation (B) can be reduced by the use of two additional special trays.
Nutrients are major chemical pollutants and they include nitrates and phosphates found in sewage, fertilizers, and detergents. Although phosphorus and nitrogen are essential elements necessary for plant growth, in excess levels nutrients overstimulate the growth of aquatic plants and algae. When discharged into rivers, streams, lakes, and estuaries, they cause nuisance growth of aquatic weeds, as well as blooms of algae, which are microscopic plants. Excessive growth of these organisms can clog navigable waters, deplete dissolved oxygen as they decompose, and block light
This Afterword began with a series of pressing policy questions. To an increasing number of specialists the right answers, and the corresponding long-run direction of travel, appear all too clear. An analogy that appeals to me is that of the move from hunter-gathering through slash and burn to the sustainable cultivation of food. This is widely seen as the single most important step in the evolution of our contemporary industrial societies. I believe the coming transition towards the 'domestication' of the world's ambient energy will come to be viewed as a 'step jump' of the same order. Just as our ancestors helped plunder to extinction the great megafaunas of the Pleistocene (Ward, 1997), so are we now unthinkingly exhausting the earth's reserves of fossil and fissile fuels - and its capacity to absorb their ecologically toxic products. As with the rise of mixed farming and crop rotation in order to produce
From such processes contain toxic substances, metal acids, alkalis, and other substances that must be treated, such as detergents, oil, and grease. These effluents may cause interference with biological treatment processes at sewage treatment plants. In the case when the effluents are to be discharged directly to a watercourse, treatment requirements will be more stringent and costly.1-8
Tainers and bottles in varying shapes, colours and sizes, with a multitude of uses from the cosmetic and medical to detergents and agricultural chemicals abound. Their various caps and tops are also abundant. Polypropylene strapping in all lengths up to several metres, and generally blue but sometimes yellow, together with varying-sized chunks of foamed (polystyrene) plastic are widespread. Polythene sheeting and bags of all sizes are quite common. Several bulky (c. 5 kg) masses of colourless plastic wrapping sheet were also recorded.
Wastewaters from the manufacturing, processing, and formulation of organic chemicals such as soaps and detergents cannot be exactly characterized. The wastewater streams are usually expected to contain trace or larger concentrations of all raw materials used in the plant, all intermediate compounds produced during manufacture, all final products, coproducts, and byproducts, and the auxiliary or processing chemicals employed. It is desirable, from the
Regarding biological destruction, as mentioned previously, surfactants are known to cause a great deal of trouble due to foaming and toxicity 103 in municipal treatment plants. The behavior of these substances depends on their type 22 , that is, anionic and nonionic detergents increase the amount of activated sludge, whereas cationic detergents reduce it, and also the various compounds decompose to a different degree. The activated sludge process is feasible for the treatment of soap and detergent industry wastes but, in general, not as satisfactory as trickling filters. The turbulence in the aeration tank induces frothing to occur, and also the presence of soaps and detergents reduces the absorption efficiency from air bubbles to liquid aeration by increasing the resistance of the liquid film.
Soda ash (sodium carbonate, Na2CO3) is a white crystalline solid that is used as a raw material in a large number of industries including glass manufacture, soap and detergents, pulp and paper production and water treatment. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is emitted from the use of soda ash and these emissions are accounted for as a source under the relevant using industry as discussed in Volume 3, Chapter 2. CO2 is also emitted during production with the quantity emitted dependent on the industrial process used to manufacture soda ash.
The risks for the environment are not restricted to fossil fuels. The development of nuclear energy also raises a certain number of problems. The risks involved are not easy to estimate, since they are generally related to accidental phenomena rather than to normal operation. Consequently, the level of danger for the environment and the public is a subject of heated debate. It is related to the management of radioactive waste and to accidental leakage of toxic products throughout the production chain.
Self- or natural purification refers to the ability of a stream or river (given enough time and distance) to purify itself. For example, when waste-water is discharged to a body of moving water, natural processes occur that will remove some forms of pollution from the water (see Figure 8.16). This process has been ongoing since time immemorial. It is only when the stream becomes overloaded with pollution that the natural cleaning action is retarded. When wastes were less complex than they are today, natural processes could remove the majority of pollutants however, with increasing population levels (more and larger settlements along rivers and streams), the natural process has much more difficulty doing so.
Various toxic cleaning supplies are pictured underneath a kitchen sink. Many household items contain highly dangerous ingredients that are toxic enough to cause illness. Various toxic cleaning supplies are pictured underneath a kitchen sink. Many household items contain highly dangerous ingredients that are toxic enough to cause illness.
While RO membranes have a wide spectrum of removal of organic contaminants, the nature and extent of rejection will depend upon the nature of the organic solute. RO is effective in rejecting organic solutes with molecular weights greater than 200-300, such as fulvic acids, lignins, humic acids, and detergents. Low-molecular-weight, nonpolar, water-soluble solutes (for example, methanol, ethanol, and ethylene glycol) are poorly rejected.
Preliminary tests on the casings included a water soak. The battery chips were first broken into minus 3 8-in. pieces and then soaked-stirred in water for 4 days. Various chemical additions were made to the water along with more aggressive scrubbing methods. An ultrasonic cleaner was used with various surfactants, detergents, and known lead solubilizers disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA), ammonium acetate, sodium citrate, acetic acid, H2SiF6, and HN03 . One approach consisted of soaking the material in EDTA for 3 days. After this treatment, the cleaned battery casings passed the EPA EP toxicity test with
As previously discussed, phosphorus is one of the key plant nutrients that contribute to eu-trophication of lakes. Untreated wastewater contains approximately 10 mg L of phosphorus from household detergents as well as from sanitary wastes. This phosphorus is primarily in the form of organic phosphorus and phosphate components. Only 20 of the phosphorus is removed in secondary treatment. (See Table 1.)
A multi-approach is often needed to reach a sufficiently low external nutrient loading to lakes to achieve good ecological state in populated areas. Approaches include P stripping and occasionally N removal at sewage works, sewage diversion, increased use of phosphate-free detergents, establishment of regulations concerning animal fertilizer storage capacity, fertilizer application practices, fertilization plans, and green cover in winter. In addition, various measures can be implemented to enhance the nutrient retention and N loss capacity in lake catchments by re-establishing wetlands, stabilizing river banks to reduce erosion, re-establishment of a natural riparian zone, and by allowing flooding of riverine areas.
Dairy cleaning waters may also contain a variety of sterilizing agents and various acid and alkaline detergents. Thus, the pH of the wastewaters can vary significantly depending on the cleaning strategy employed. The most commonly used ClP chemicals are caustic soda, nitric acid, phosphoric acid, and sodium hypochloride 10 these all have a significant impact on wastewater pH. Other concerns related to CIP and sanitizing strategies include the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) contributions (normally
Wastes is in washing and purifying soaps and detergents and the resulting major pollutants are high BOD and certain soaps (oily and greasy, alkali, and high-temperature wastes), which are removed primarily through air flotation and skimming, and precipitation with the use of CaCl2 as a coagulant.
Notable improvements in washing and cleaning resulted from the introduction and increasing use of synthetic detergents. However, this also caused difficulties in sewage treatment and led to a new form of pollution, the main visible effect of which was the formation of objectionable quantities of foam on rivers. Although biodegradation of surfactants in soils and natural waters was inferred by the observation that they did not accumulate in the environment, there was widespread.concern that their much higher concentrations in the effluents from large industrial areas would have significant local impacts. In agreement with public authorities, the manufacturers fairly quickly introduced products of a different type. interference with oxygen transfer), but it has made a significant improvement. Studies of surfactant biodegradation have shown that the molecular architecture of the surfactant largely determines its biological characteristics 4 . Nevertheless, one of the later most pressing...
Surfactant concentrations in polluted natural water bodies interfere with the self-purification process in several ways. First, certain detergents such as ABS are refractory or difficult to biodegrade and even toxic or inhibitory to microorganisms, and influence the BOD exhibited by organic pollution in surface waters. On the other hand, readily biodegradable detergents could impose an extreme short-term burden on the self-purification capacity of a water course, possibly introducing anaerobic conditions.
From all the aforementioned, it is obvious that detergents find their way into drinking water supplies in various ways. As far as imparting odor to drinking water, only heavy doses of anionic surfactants yield an unpleasant odor 36 , and someone has to have a very sensitive nose to smell detergent doses of 50 mg L or less. On the other hand, it seems that the impact of detergent doses on the sense of taste of various individuals varies considerably. As reported by Cohen 10 , the U.S. Public Health Service conducted a series of taste tests which showed that although 50 of the people in the test group detected a concentration of 60 mg L of ABS in drinking water, only 5 of them detected a concentration of 16 mg L. Because tests like this have been conducted using commercial detergent formulations, most probably the observed taste is not due to the surfactants but rather to the additives or perfumes added to the products. However, the actual limit for detergents in drinking water in the...
If recent product innovations sell successfully in test markets in the United States and other countries, rapid growth could begin again for the entire soap and detergent industry and especially for individual sectors of that industry. Among these new products are formulations that combine bleaching materials and other components, and detergents and fabric softeners sold in concentrated forms. These concentrated materials, so well accepted in Japan, are now becoming commercially significant in Western Europe. Their more widespread use will allow the industry to store and transport significantly smaller volumes of detergents, with the consequent reduction of environmental risks from housecleaning and spills. Some components of detergents such as enzymes will very likely grow in use, although the use of phosphates employed as builders will continue to drop for environmental reasons. Consumers shift to liquid formulations in areas where phosphate materials are banned from detergents,...
For a long time, detergents were utilized in laboratories for the isolation, through concentration in the foam, of mycobacteria such as the bacillus of Koch (tuberculosis), as reported in the annals of the Pasteur Institute 27 . This phenomenon of extraction by foam points to the danger existing in river waters where numerous such microorganisms may be present due to sewage pollution. The foam transported by wind could possibly serve as the source of a disease epidemic. In fact, this problem limits itself to the mycobacteria and viruses (such as those of hepatitis and polio), which are the only microorganisms able to resist the disinfecting power of detergents. Therefore, waterborne epidemics could also be spread through airborne detergent foams.
Detergents, as mentioned previously, can be formulated with a variety of organic and inorganic chemicals, depending on the cleaning characteristics desired. A finished, packaged detergent customarily consists of two main components the active ingredient or surfactant, and the builder. The processes discussed in the following will include the manufacture and processing of the surfactant as well as the preparation of the finished, marketable detergent. The production of the surfactant (Fig. 1) is generally a two-step process (a) sulfation or sulfonation, and (b) neutralization.
The primary units in processing beverages are raw material handling and processing, mixing, fermentation, cooking, cooling, bottling and packaging, pasteurization, and cleanup. Effluent discharged from the beverage industry is normally generated by wasted drinks and syrup, water in the fermentation process, water from bottle cleaning, which contains detergents and caustics, and lastly lubricants used in the machinery. Thus, the associated wastewater pollutants contain TSS, various organics, nitrates, phosphates, sodium and potassium, and so on. The wastewater of fermentation processes usually has higher organic loads and overall wastewater volume compared to other food processing sectors. Table 30.2 gives a list of parameters for soft drink wastewater.
Organic chemicals such as insecticides, herbicides, petroleum hydrocarbons, detergents, and a range of volatile organic compounds such as solvents discharged into aquatic ecosystems have the potential of altering the integrity of natural waters. This variety of chemicals regarded as water pollutants arises from agricultural use of pesticides, especially insecticides and herbicides, industrial wastes, marine oil spillage, and domestic wastes. They are potentially harmful to human health and aquatic organisms. Nutrients arising from sewage and agricultural use of fertilizers may cause eutrophication in aquatic ecosystems.
Pesticides used in agriculture and around the home, especially those used for controlling insects (insecticides) and weeds (herbicides), are another type of toxic chemical. These chemicals are used to kill unwanted animals and plants, and may be collected by rainwater runoff and carried into streams, lakes, bays, rivers, and seas, especially if these substances are applied in excessive quantities. Some of these chemicals are biodegradable and may quickly decay into harmless or less harmful forms, while others are nonbiodegradable and can persist in the environment for a long time. When animals consume plants that have been treated with certain nonbiodegradable toxicants (NBTs), such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and chlordane, these chemicals are absorbed into the tissues or organs of the animals and can accumulate over time. When other animals feed on these contaminated animals, the chemicals are passed up the food chain. Some of these can accumulate in fish and shellfish...
High levels of heavy metals and some other elements (such as lead, copper, arsenic and antimony) are toxic to most organisms. There are microorganisms which can tolerate these elements and may even use them in their metabolism. These can be useful for cleaning up polluted areas. There are also microorganisms that can utilise any form of naturally occurring organic compounds which derive from biological activity. Microbes which degrade petroleum, and other types of hydrocarbon deposits, may be a nuisance under some circumstances, but are useful for cleaning up spills. Not all organic compounds are metabolised by microorganisms. Some of human origin (such as plastics, detergents and pesticides) are not degraded and thus accumulate in the environment, often with harmful effects.
Many microorganisms (including bacteria, fungi and yeasts) excrete different types of biosurfactants (including mycolic acids, glycolipids, lipopoly-saccharides, lipoproteins-lipopeptides and phospholipids) (Desai and Banat, 1997). Biosurfactants reduce the surface tension in the same manner as chemically synthesized tensides. The biological origin, low toxicity and their environmental bio-compatibility favour these fermentation products over others for application in many fields, including cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, emulsifiers, preservatives and detergents. During the microbial production of sophorose lipids by Candida bombicola, glucose and or triglycerides (oil and fat from plants) are partially degraded to obtain energy and a carbon source for growth of microorganisms. Simultaneously, the tensidic glycolipids are produced via gluconeogenesis, hydroxylation of fatty acids and so on (Lang and Rau, 1999). With Candida bombicola as a catalyst, and glucose and fatty acids from...
Soda ash is used in a variety of applications, including, glass production, soaps and detergents, flue gas desulphurisation, chemicals, pulp and paper and other common consumer products. Soda ash production and consumption (including sodium carbonate, Na2CO3) results in the release of CO2. Emissions from soda ash production are reported in the Chemical Industry, while emissions from use are reported in the respective end use sectors where soda ash is used. Emissions from soda ash used in glass production are already accounted for above. Similarly, where soda ash is used in other source categories such as chemicals, emissions should be reported in that source category.
Waxes are used in a number of different applications. Paraffin waxes are used in applications such as candles, corrugated boxes, paper coating, board sizing, food production, wax polishes, surfactants (as used in detergents) and many others. Emissions from the use of waxes derive primarily when the waxes or derivatives of paraffins are combusted during use (e.g., candles), and when they are incinerated with or without heat recovery or in wastewater treatment (for surfactants). In the cases of incineration and wastewater treatment the emissions should be reported in the Energy or Waste Sectors, respectively (see Figure 5.1).
Soaps and detergents are formulated products designed to meet various cost and performance standards. The formulated products contain many components, such as surfactants to tie up unwanted materials (commercial detergents usually contain only 1030 surfactants), builders or polyphosphate salts to improve surfactant processes and remove calcium and magnesium ions, and bleaches to increase reflectance of visible light. They also contain various additives designed to remove stains (enzymes), prevent soil re-deposition, regulate foam, reduce washing machine corrosion, brighten colors, give an agreeable odor, prevent caking, and help processing of the formulated detergent 18 .
Although algae blooms can make waters turbid, in surface water most turbidity is related to the smaller inorganic components of the suspended solids burden, primarily the clay particles. Microorganisms and vegetable material may also contribute to turbidity. Wastewaters from industry and households usually contain a wide variety of turbidity-producing materials. Detergents, soaps, and various emulsifying agents contribute to turbidity.
The PAHs are of particular concern in aquatic environments. They have accumulated in many locations to concentrations in sediment and water that are well above those required to cause significant phototoxicity when tested in the laboratory. The PAHs also, in nearly every contaminated site, consist of hundreds of unsubstituted and variously substituted compounds that differ in their capacity for photoactivation, uptake, degradation, and environmental modification, including potential photo-modification to more toxic products 16,20-24 , The complexity of these mixtures makes predictions of phototoxicity risk a uniquely site-specific task, relative to other contaminants. PAHs are of ongoing concern because they still are introduced into surface waters by urban and industrial runoff, petroleum releases, and aerial deposition 22,25 . Most PAHs present in aquatic systems are also relatively recalcitrant to environmental degradation, and are bioaccumulative, having logKow values ranging from...
Anaerobic conditions prevailed during the early stages of the Earth's history. The oxygen in the atmosphere originated from the activities of photosynthetic organisms and only accumulated once the quantity of oxygen produced by photosynthesis exceeded the capacity of chemicals in soils and sediments to remove it (by being oxidised). Organisms which live in aerobic conditions (in the presence of oxygen) had to adapt to doing so, while strictly anaerobic organisms, which cannot survive exposure to oxygen, have persisted in those habitats where it is absent. Strictly anaerobic microorganisms cannot survive exposure to oxygen because it forms some highly toxic reactive ions and molecules. Among these are the superoxide ion (O-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the hydroxyl radical (OH-). Aerobic organisms have enzymes which destroy these toxic products of oxygen. These include catalase and peroxidase, which break down hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide dismutase, which destroys the superoxide...
Wastewaters may contain 10 to 20 mg L phosphorus as P, much of which comes from phosphate builders in detergents. Because of noxious algae blooms that occur in surface waters, there is much interest in controlling the amount of phosphorus compounds that enter surface waters in domestic and industrial waste discharges and natural runoff. This is particularly the case in the United States, where approximately 15 of the population contributes wastewater effluents to lakes, resulting in eutrophication of these water bodies. Eutrophication leads to significant changes in water quality. Reducing phosphorus inputs to receiving waters can control this problem.
Environmental pollution by industrial wastes has become a threat to the continued existence of plants, animals, and humans. Industrial pollution contains traces of quantities of raw materials, intermediate products, final products, coproducts, and by-products, and of any ancillary or processing chemicals used. They include detergents, solvents, cyanide, trace metals, mineral and organic acids, nitrogenous substances, fats, salts, bleaching agents, dyes, pigments, phenolic compounds, tanning agents, sulfide, and ammonia. Many of these substances are toxic. Because of the larger volumes of waste materials, landfills are the preferred method of waste disposal. The pollutants arising from a particular industry are different from those arising from another industry. The waste generated differs from industry to
Saline lakes are a source of many evaporitic minerals which have a wide range of uses in manufacturing, construction, agriculture, medicine as well as chemical industries. Such evaporites include halite (NaCl), uranium, zeolites (hydrated alumino-silicate minerals with an 'open' structure that can accommodate a wide variety of cations, such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and others, i.e., Na2Al2Si3O10-2H2O (natrolite) used as molecular filters and ion exchange agents), lithium (used in heat transfer applications and salts used in pharmacology as mood stabilizers), potash (K2O -fertilizer, glass, soap) and borax (Na2B4O710H2O -detergents, cosmetics, glass, pottery). Saline lakes are also a source of Glauber's salts (Na2SO4 - used in manufacturing of detergents, carpet fresheners, glass,
Because of the costs and inconvenience incurred when changing damaged or blocked membranes in large filtration plants, much care should be taken. In any case it is recommended to do pilot studies before using a large membrane plant. Such studies should include the membrane cleaning aspects as well as any changes that might be necessary to give excellent results. Today's membrane technology is in most of all cases able to produce clean and healthy water independent of the feed quality. To make the processes beneficial to the user, the membrane manufacturer, the plant supplier and the producer of detergents these all have to work together from the very beginning of new projects.
Detergents, or surfactants, are large organic molecules that are slightly soluble in water and cause foaming in wastewater treatment plants and in the surface waters into which the effluent is discharged. Probably the most serious effect that detergents can have on wastewater treatment processes is in their tendency to reduce the oxygen uptake in biological processes. According to Rowe and Abdel-Magid (1995), detergents affect wastewater treatment processes in that they lower the surface, or interfacial, tension of water and increase its ability to wet surfaces with which they come in contact emulsify grease and oil, deflocculate colloids induce flotation of solids and give rise to foams and may kill useful bacteria and other living organisms. Since the development and increasing use of synthetic detergents, many of these problems have been reduced or eliminated.
The desalination membranes is critical to the performance of wastewater treatment plants. Cost associated with the membrane cleaning constitutes 5-20 of the operating cost of the RO process 17 . Efficiency of cleaning generally depends on the type of cleaning agent and its concentration. It also depends on the understanding of specific interactions occurring between cleaning agents and membrane foulants. The basis for choosing a cleaning agent is the type of the foulant deposited on the membrane surface. Various kinds of agents such as acid, alkaline, surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and commercial detergents are used for RO membrane cleaning depending on the foulant nature. In the case of fouling caused by calcium phosphate and calcium silicate, acids were the weakest cleaning agents. However, alkali had a moderate effect and the combination of chelating agents and surfactants with alkali (EDTA+SDS+NaOH) provided the best cleaning efficiency 18 . Similar results were...
It has been over ten years since the first Nod factor was isolated and shown to initiate nodule formation on specific hosts in a way that correlated with the Nod factor's structure. Because Nod factors are diverse compounds based on modifying a lipochito-oligosaccharide backbone and are active at low concentrations they were hailed as a new type of plant signal molecule that behaved more like some of the animal hormones than did the recognized plant hormones, such as an auxin or cytokinin. The discovery of Nod factors implied that there should be a Nod factor receptor, which would presumably start a signal cascade leading to the cell division and other changes in root development characteristic of nodule formation. Finding this receptor has been very hard work. Nod factors have hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains and, like the classic detergents, they stick to many cellular components. The target tissue where they specifically act is not abundant and the observation that Nod factors...
Soft drink wastewater consists of wasted soft drinks and syrup, water from the washing of bottles and cans, which contains detergents and caustics, and finally lubricants used in the machinery. Therefore, the significant associated wastewater pollutants will include total suspended solids (TSS), five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrates, phosphates, sodium, and potassium (Table 2). Table 3 gives a list of typical wastewater parameters. As shown, higher organic contents indicate that anaerobic treatment is a feasible process.
Heat treating aims to modify the physical properties of workpieces through the application of controlled heating and cooling cycles. Case-hardening produces a hard surface over a metal core. The surface is wear-resistant and durable. Quenching is realized using several types of solutions. Brine solutions contain sodium and calcium chloride and mineral acids. Water oil emulsions contain soaps, alcohols, oils, emulsifiers, in addition to dissolved salts. Liquid carburizing and carbonitriding solutions contain sodium cyanide, detergents, and dissolved salts. Hightemperature quenching baths contain sodium cyanide, boron oxide, sodium fluoride, dissolved salts, as well as manganese dioxide and silicon carbide. Molten lead is used for heat treatment of steel.
In many cases, cleaning with solvents has been eliminated altogether through the use of water-based cleaning supplemented with detergents, heating, and or agitation. Other source reduction measures have been implemented to minimize the discharges of toxic materials. For example, drain boards and splash plates have been commonly installed to prevent drips and spills. Additionally, the design of immersion racks or baskets and the positioning of parts on these racks or baskets have also been optimized to prevent trapping of solvents, acids caustics, or plating baths.
A number of chemical or electrochemical treatments may be applied after the forming of aluminum or aluminum alloy products. Solvent, acid and alkaline solutions, and detergents can be used to clean soils such as oil and grease from the aluminum surface. Acid and alkaline solutions can be used to etch the product or brighten its surface. Acid solutions are also used for deoxidizing and desmutting.
Traditionally many soaps and detergents were originally produced from fatty acids and despite the gradual transition to petrochemical-based production routes, their organic oil basis still contributes to a major proportion to their production. This route can be classified as a sort white-based chemical, but due to its historical and continued use cannot be associated with any CO2 reduction potential. Conversion of fatty acids to biolubricants could present significant savings. In the EU (2006), there were more than 450 different lubricants in excess of 4.6Mton production. Each grade requires a unique compositional formulation for the specific
In 2007, about 7 of all chemical sales were generated using bio - based feedstock, biotechnological production methods or a combination of the two. Products include pharmaceutical ingredients, enzymes, ethanol, oleochemicals and food and feed ingredients 3 . For the German chemical industry for example, fats and oils are the most important renewable feedstocks with about half of the total of 2.7Mtons of renewable raw materials used, followed by starch (23 ), cellulose (12 ) and sugar (11 ) 4 . More than a third of these triglycerides are used tenside production - not only to make cleaning detergents but also for the pharma-, cosmetic- and textile industry. Also lubricants, polymers and polymer additives as well as lacquers and colorants are important branches using these raw materials. Fats for the chemical processing are mainly derived from animals (e.g., milk or tallow), from plants (e.g., palm oils or seed oils), and from microorganisms (e.g., algae).
Healthy Chemistry For Optimal Health
Thousands Have Used Chemicals To Improve Their Medical Condition. This Book Is one Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To Chemicals. Not All Chemicals Are Harmful For Your Body – Find Out Those That Helps To Maintain Your Health.