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Underground Fat Loss Manual Summary


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How Many Parasite Species Per Host Species

Studies of helminth parasites of fishes suggest that latitudinal gradients of diversity are more complex than are those of their hosts. There are many more fish species in the tropics, so we might initially expect there to be more parasite species as well. But, if high host diversity in the tropics leads to low densities of each host species, then some host-specific parasites might be unable to maintain viable populations in their low-density tropical hosts, in which case host-specific parasites and their hosts could exhibit reverse gradients of species diversity. Empirically, the two best studied parasite taxa show opposite trends tropical fish species have more monogenean parasites per host species than do those in temperate zones (Rohde, 1982, 1999, 2002), whereas tropical fish species have less diverse gut parasites than do their temperate counterparts (Choudary and Dick, 2000 Poulin, 2001). The monogeneans predominantly live on the skin and gills of fish and are either...

Forestry and Livestock Will Also Be Affected by Climate Change

Livestock respond to climate change directly through heat and humidity stresses and are affected indirectly by changes in forage quantity and quality, water availability, and disease. Because heat stress reduces milk production, weight gain, and reproduction in livestock, the production of pork, beef, and milk is projected to decline in the United States with warming temperatures, especially with increases above 5.4 F (3 C).

Descriptive Statistics of Multi Model Data

The median projected impact of climate change on an important crop's production by 2030 and the 5th and 95th percentiles of the distribution of estimated impacts are used as indicators to form a measure of the vulnerability of the region (together with an assessment of the importance of the crop itself in the diet of the region's population). Since in the paper uncertainties in climate changes for the crop regions were quantified by randomly selecting joint changes in temperature and precipitation from the untouched population of models scenarios projections, and feeding them through the estimated coefficients of the crop regression model (uncertainty in the crop regression model were also addressed by a bootstrap technique), this approach is an example of the one-model-one-vote approach, equally weighting projections from the

Global Warming And Climate Change

Flooding increases waterborne diseases by contaminating drinking water. In marine ecosystems, bacteria such as the vibrio species proliferate in warmer waters. Temperature also increases the incidence of vector-borne diseases. Both malaria and arboviruses are mosquito-borne diseases. Rodent-borne hantavirus infections increase in relation to El Nino's heavy rainfall. Changes in climate will affect food productivity and lead to malnutrition, which may increase disease rates. Inadequate diets also occur in developed nations, as fast food and contaminated food represents an increasing percentage of the diet. Also, fast-food processing and transportation can remove nutritional value from the foods, often increasing the sugar and fat content. A disease of dietary insufficiency in children known as kwashiorkor needs to be monitored as climate changes. Dietary factors are major components of heart disease and cancer. Increased saturated or trans fat intake may be correlated with increased...

Krill and Pelagic Food Webs

The short food chain based on krill represents the most outstanding product of a long evolutionary process in isolation, in a cold and nutrient-rich environment with a seasonal ice cover and light availability (Hempel 1985). While krill has a rather wide food spectrum, most of its consumers are specialised to feed on it alone. Like other highly productive pelagic areas which host short food chains with a large herbivore biomass (e.g. anchovies and sardines), in the marginal ice zone E. superba is the main species channelling organic matter from phytoplankton to cephalopods, fish, birds, seals and baleen whales. The giant squid (Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni, over 5 m in length and 150 kg in weight) and other species of cephalopods are among the most important krill consumers, and they are in turn important in the diet of

Marginal Agricultural Production Systems

There are now substantial data and evidence that smallholder farmers in marginal areas maintain and select among their landraces, and that this can be considered traditional breeding or management of diversity11 as well as conservation of that diversity. In the crops they plant, they select for those criteria that allow for greatest resistance across several competing characteristics straw versus grain, hardiness rusticity versus yield, cultural preferences in flavor and appearance over total calories. Examples are adaptation to microenvironments, environmental stresses or biological hazards such as pests. In genetic terms, this adaptation is often not based on single characters but is multi-locus, with complex inheritance or co-

Feed intake and enteric methane emissions

To estimate a ruminant's ME requirement according to CSIRO (2007), feed ME content and digestibility are required. As an example, we have utilised indicative values of 10MJ ME kg-1 DM and 70 per cent, respectively, for beef cattle grazing temperate forage. The MEm was 15 per cent larger for intact males than castrated males and females, decreasing about 2 per cent per year with age and the net efficiency of use of ME for maintenance was 70 per cent, calculated from the feed ME content. As an example, for 150-700kg LW beef cattle, MEm was estimated to be 30-96MJ ME d-1. The ruminant's ME requirement may have exceeded MEm owing to the needs of food gathering and growth and for breeding females, pregnancy and lactation. These requirements have been expressed in the form of MEm multipliers. For grazing beef cattle in the same LW range as before, the multiplier was proportional to the LW, adding 11-32 per cent to the MEm. For weight gain of 0.2kg LW d-1, the ME multiplier added a further...

Shortterm opportunities

Reducing animal numbers may seem an obvious way to reduce FCH4. However, equally obvious, this method may not be acceptable to many farmers if it threatened their livelihood. Moreover, while animal numbers have been reducing in some countries (for example European Union and US), the global ruminant population has increased slightly over the past ten years according to FAO (2009). This reflected greater demand for ruminant animal products, milk and meat (Steinfeld et al, 2006). Demand has increased more for meat, which has been increasingly supplied by the production of monogastric animals like pigs and chickens (Galloway et al, 2007). In addition, there are plant-based alternatives for producing human dietary protein. However, utilization of these production systems has not been fully realized, especially for economically advanced and advancing societies, though change might be possible according to Smil's (2002) insightful and constructive analysis. Thus, animal numbers should not be...

Origin and occurrence of NDMA in food drinks and cigarette smoke

Synergistic effects of dietary components may increase the likelihood of tumors arising from NDMA. Alcohol and diets rich in fats have been shown to increase the occurrence of liver tumors in laboratory animals fed NDMA 53,54 . Furthermore, cadmium in the diet has been shown to promote NDMA carcinogenesis 55 .

Improving animal diets

Changing animal diets can also lead to a reduction in N input, leading to lower rates of denitrification. Zebarth et al (1999) constructed a large-scale N budget for an area of approximately 70,000ha heavily used for animal husbandry including the production of feed. They found that through improved manure storage and fertilizer management practices, in combination with an improved animal diet by removing surplus dietary crude protein and balancing protein, carbohydrates and amino acids in the diet leading to a reduction in N in the excreta of between 20 and 25 per cent, the total N input across the region could be reduced by 17 per cent and the N surplus by 24 per cent. Moreover, it was estimated that the improved animal diet would reduce denitrification by 22 per cent compared to the reference scenario. If we apply improved animal diets by assuming a 20 per cent reduction of the N in animal excreta, manure N application to arable land falls from 33.3 to 26.2Tg yr-1 (Table 5.3). This...

Trace Elements and POPs in Pelagic Plankton

Table 13 reports average trace metal concentrations in some species of pelagic crustaceans from the Weddell Sea. Rainbow (1989) found geographical variations in metal concentrations, and a significant negative regression between the size of the amphipod T. gaudichaudii and its Fe and Zn contents. This relationship suggests that surface-adsorbed metals may constitute a significant proportion of the whole-body metal content in small individuals with a higher surface area body weight ratio. Furthermore, smaller amphipods are faster growing and probably have greater physiological requirements for essential trace elements. In general, when compared with related species from other seas, crustaceans from the Southern Ocean have lower Pb concentrations, comparable Zn and Ni contents, and much higher Cu and especially Cd contents (particularly in caridean decapods and some species of hyperiid amphipods). The bioaccumulation of Cd has an ecological significance because amphipods of the genus...

Metal Accumulation and Homeostasis in Antarctic Molluscs

The feeding behaviour of notothenioids at Terra Nova Bay is somewhat reflected in the Cd and Hg concentrations in their organs and tissues. Benthic feeders (T. bernacchii and T. hansoni) have higher body burdens of heavy metals than epibenthic (T. newnesi) or semipelagic fish (C. hamatus). The latter two species mainly feed on copepods and euphausiids, which have lower Cd and Hg concentrations than many species of benthic invertebrates. At Terra Nova Bay A. colbecki and other molluscs are frequently included in the diet of T. bernacchii (Vacchi et al. 2000b), and this helps explain why this species, compared to other notothenioids, has the highest concentration of metals in the liver and accumulates 2-3 times more Hg in the muscle tissue. Minganti et al. (1995) reported Hg concentrations in A. colbecki and T. bernacchii which match those in Fig. 47, and showed that up to 96 (median 80 ) of total Hg in the muscle of T. bernacchii was MeHg in the liver, kidney and gonads this percentage...

Foraging Behaviour And Food

Pterodroma petrels are often cited as squid-eaters (e.g., Imber, 1973 Abrams, 1985 Schramm, 1986) which, of course, they are, but some species are also extremely adept at catching crustaceans from the sea surface (Harper, 1987). Which of these prey species is the more important component in the diet of these birds And does the important prey change throughout the year Data are lacking.

Exposure to Contaminants Through Wildlife

Contaminants are found in a variety of sea mammals, fish, and the organs of land animals they are rarely found in plants. On an average basis, Inuit communities consume more of these contaminants than do indigenous peoples who harvest a majority of their foods from land-based sources, and who consume less fat derived from wildlife. Dietary exposure estimates across the circumpolar Arctic have shown a wide variance in mercury intakes. The highest levels of mercury in maternal blood were found among those who eat large amounts of marine food, especially in Greenland and East Canada. The daily intake of mercury by some Inuit in Greenland and eastern Canada may be more than five times the limit set by the World Health Organization (WHO). At present, there are no studies documenting a positive correlation between this high intake and negative health effects, for example, neurological effects. The high levels of selenium also found in sea mammals and Inuit from Greenland and eastern Canada...

Table 36 Grain production per capita and number of migrants from the provinces of European Russia in 1911 and 1912

The available statistics (Popov, 1925), the amount of grain on the market reached about 17 million tons in the good year 1912-1913 (see Table 4.3 in Chapter 4). A simple calculation shows that this surplus grain would feed a rural population of 120 million entirely, even if the peasants increased their consumption by 30 percent (an extra 0.14 tons above the usual ration of 0.42 to 0.44 tons per capita). A grain deficit on the market, similar to that of 1906 (when the amount of marketable grain fell by 33 percent), could happen only as a result of a 10 to 12 percent increase in peasant consumption. Thus even a modest increase in peasant consumption would cause two quite different final results. For peasants, an increase in consumption of 10 to 12 percent (an additional 0.05 tons per capita) would not result in a great improvement in the diet of their livestock, but overall the country could suffer a lack of grain on the market. The following events illustrate the existence of this...

Choice of emission factors

Nitrogen excretion may be calculated based on the same dietary assumptions used in modelling enteric fermentation emissions (see Section 10.2). The amount of nitrogen excreted by cattle can be estimated as the difference between the total nitrogen taken in by the animal and the total nitrogen retained for growth and milk production. Equations 10.32 and 10.33 can be used to calculate the variables for nitrogen intake and nitrogen retained for use in Equation 10.31. The total nitrogen intake rate is derived as follows GE gross energy intake of the animal, in enteric model, based on digestible energy, milk production, pregnancy, current weight, mature weight, rate of weight gain, and IPCC constants, MJ animal-1 day-1 18.45 conversion factor for dietary GE per kg of dry matter, MJ kg-1. This value is relatively constant across a wide range of forage and grain-based feeds commonly consumed by livestock. 6.25 conversion from kg of dietary protein to kg of dietary N, kg feed protein (kg N)-1...

Photoprotective mechanisms

Mycosporine-like amino acids, another type of photoprotective substance, have been found in a diversity of organisms ranging from bacteria to fish 57 . Up to 19 kinds of mycosporine-like amino acids have been identified. Certain organisms contain several of these substances that broadly screen UV 58 . The concentrations of these substances increase proportionately with the intensity of UV irradiance they are exposed to 58-60 . Mycosporine-like amino acids are probably not synthesized by fish and invertebrates, but acquired through the diet, especially from grazing on algae 61 . Gadusol, also believed to be photo-protective, is structurally related to mycosporine-like amino acids and is found in the eggs of cod and Mediteranian fish 62 and in brine shrimp 63 .

Council Of Athapaskan Tribal Governments

The tribal governments on the Council consist of Gwich'in and Koyukon tribes. The Arctic, Beaver, Birch Creek, Canyon, Chalkyitsik, Circle, Fort Yukon, Rampart, Stevens, and Venetie comprise this tribal consortium. They inhabit ten remote villages in the Yukon Flats, ranging from populations as low as ten residents in Canyon, to 600 in Fort Yukon. The tribes still maintain a predominantly traditional subsistence lifestyle. Traditional foods such as moose and caribou, ducks and geese, as well as berries and other food plants make up the majority of the diet. The tribes' activities and livelihood depend upon the seasonal changes and landscape. Since there is no road access to the villages, the river system provides the primary means of transportation in the summer months, while travel by snow machine is predominant in the winter months.

Homestead Agroforestry An Excellent Source of Nutrition

Agroforestry Potential Homestead

Of all the options available to tackle national malnutrition problem, the most practical and sustainable option would be to promote both cultivation and consumption of horticultural crops (fruits, vegetables, and spices) that could provide basic requirement of the essential vitamins and minerals (Fig. 16.12). Production of horticultural crops especially vegetable and fruits may well be the answer to the potential problems of hunger and malnutrition in Bangladesh (Javier 1992 Ahmad 1995). Daily intake of two spoonfuls - about 30 g of colored leafy vegetables can protect a child from vitamin-A deficiency (Hussain 1992). Homestead agroforestry in Bangladesh provides an excellent opportunity for farmers to produce a wide range of horticultural crops. These crops are ideal for the homestead (Talukder et al. 1995). All micro-sites of homestead from home yard to kitchen garden, and even roofs of houses help diversify household's diet through the production and consumption of some of the...

Mangrove Faunal Guilds And Ecosystem Function

The crab community can have significant effects on pathways of energy and carbon flow within the forest, the quantities of organic material available for export from forest, and the cycling of nitrogen to support forest primary production (Robertson 1991 Robertson et al. 1992). Malley (1978) found that the contents of the proventriculus and rectum of the sesarmid crab Chiromanthes onychophorum, a common crab species in mangroves in Malaysia, consisted of more than 95 mangrove leaf material by volume. The first quantitative estimates of litter consumption by crabs was between 22 and 42 of the daily leaf fall (mean 28 ) depending on the time of year (Robertson 1986). These rates showed that leaf-burying crabs were a major link between primary and secondary production within mangrove forests in northeastern Australia. Emmerson and McGwynnc (1992) found that leaf litter was the major component in the diet of the crab Sesarma meinerti, a dominate specics in the mangroves of south Africa,...

Methane emissions from enteric fermentation

Methane is produced by the fermentation of feed within the animal's digestive system. Generally, the higher the feed intake, the higher the methane emission. Although, the extent of methane production may also be affected by the composition of the diet. Feed intake is positively related to animal size, growth rate, and production (e.g., milk production, wool growth, or pregnancy).

Plant chemicals in the evolution of mammals and humans

The relation between primates and fleshy fruits was established in the early-mid Eocene (55 to 48 million years bp) when the tropical forests reached their maximum latitudinal extent (Collinson and Hooker, 1991). Plants have formed a significant part of the diet throughout human evolution and there can be no doubt that a wide range of plant chemicals was thereby ingested. Although there is evidence to suggest that the evolution of plant secondary compounds was closely influenced by their interaction with insect pollinators, there is no evidence that mammals have had any impact on the distribution of these compounds but have adapted to them (Lindroth, 1988). The whole of hominid evolution may have taken place against a backdrop of plant secondary compounds similar to those existing today. Recently a chemical from an Australian legume of interest in AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) research was found in morphologically similar species from S. America. The common ancestor of...

Nekton Biodiversity And Mangrove Food Webs

The structural and ecological functions of mangroves sustain nearshore marine habitats and provide food and refugia to a variety of organisms at different trophic levels (Odum and Heald 1972 Thayer et al. 1987 Yanez-Arancibia et al. 1988, 1993 Robertson and Duke 1990 Rojas et al. 1992 Sasekumar et al. 1992). This is clearly reflected in the description of nekton food webs in mangroves (Figure 13.7). The complexity of food sources found in fish stomachs documents changes in food diversity and fish preferences as fish grow. Often the diet of a single species comprise more than 20 different (or diverse) food types in mangrove areas. The whole trophic structure does not comprise specific trophic levels, as fish eat food from a diversity of sources in the mangrove ecosystem (Figure 13.7). In summary, the general characteristics of feeding relationships among mangrove-related fishes are (1) flexibility of feeding in time and space (2) sharing of the common pool of most abundant food...

Maize And Agricultural Vulnerability In Mexico

Maize is the staple grain of Mexican cuisine and is the most essential contribution to the nutrition and sustenance of Mexico's population. By some estimates, maize contributes up to 50 of total calories consumed in Mexico, and up to 70 in rural areas (Fritscher Mundt, 1999).

Table 95 Sown area of main cereal crops in the Russian Federation 19701987 percent

Unfortunately, the increase in the production of mixed feed during the 1980s was accompanied by a fall in quality. In 1985, the official journal Kommunist criticized the poor quality of mixed feed produced in the country. In Vinnitsk province (Ukraine), 22 inter-farm plants for producing mixed feed (for several local farms using the farmers' own grain) were in operation and provided as much as 60 percent of grain for livestock as a mix. The problem was that the mixed feed was of poor quality. Kolkhozes complained about the low quality of the mixed feed, which was also one and a half times more expensive than the grain they had delivered to the inter-farm plants. Because of the poor quality, the total expenditure on fodder in livestock production did not decrease but still reached 1.7 feed units per liter of milk and 10 feed units (oat equivalent) per kilogram of weight gain for pork. The journal pointed out that these figures were the same as in the 1950s, but that then the main feed...

Estuarine and Continental Shelf Sediments

Sedimentary fauna are a critical part of the diet for many estuarine and shelf species that feed near or on the bottom, such as cod and flatfish (Feder & Pearson 1988 Carlson et al. 1997). Some pelagic fish feed directly on benthic invertebrates at the seafloor-water interface during various phases in their life cycles. Many benthic fauna spend the early parts of their life cycle in the plankton and, in some cases, are extremely abundant and potentially important for pelagic food chains (Lindley et al. 1995). Structure-rich sedimentary habitats, particularly marshes, mangrove swamps, and seagrass beds, create refuges for juveniles of commercially exploited pelagic fish and invertebrates (Laurel et al. 2003).

Nutrient Contributions of Wildlife

There are several ways to understand the nutritional contributions of wildlife animals and plants to diets of Arctic residents. The first avenue of understanding is based on laboratory studies of food components, particularly nutrients, of sampled wildlife tissues. The second avenue is to understand the contribution to daily nutrition of the portion of the individual or community diet derived from wildlife. Both avenues are required for an assessment of dietary intake and quality. Research on the use of food by Arctic residents has been carried out for communities in Alaska, Canada, the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, and Russia. Although it is evident that Arctic peoples consume only a portion of their average daily food intake as animal and plant wildlife foods, it is useful to consider the contribution of this portion to overall nutrition. This can be done using techniques of assessing dietary nutrient density. Recent studies on nutrient density for selected nutrients in...

Agricultural Challenges

In the debate about global food security over the next century there is a clear focus on supply-side effects and developments, i.e. technological change in agricultural production, limits to natural resource availability and resource quality, most of all agricultural land and water for irrigation. Surprisingly, the importance of changes in demand growth and demand structure have been studied to a lesser extent. In many scenarios, the current trend towards higher meat consumption at higher income levels is simply extrapolated over a wide range of countries on a global scale in the course of economic development. However, there may be significant scope for altering the relationship between income and food demand. For example, changes in dietary structures may evolve due to increasing knowledge and concerns about health impacts of alternative diets (Bender 1994). In addition to improved production efficiency and waste reduction, demand changes towards healthier diets could also...


Figure 1.1 shows an example of this approach. It predicts the maize caloric deficit in Southern Africa caused by both climate change and population growth. The subnational level of resolution, as well as the easily interpretable nature of such maps, makes this alternative more useful to policymakers than country-level resolution, single-factor assessments.


It has been calculated that about 44 percent of the country's carbon dioxide emissions come from the cattle industry or other parts of the agricultural sector, with 70 percent of those from methane from the 55 million cattle. As a result, many of the attempts to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of Argentina have centered on the cattle industry, with cows from Argentina producing larger emissions than their counterparts in Brazil and Uruguay. The first attempts have focused on trying to change the diet of the cattle on the basis that the simpler the diet, and the less problems in digesting the food, the lower the level of greenhouse gas emissions this also improves in the reproductive cycle of the animals.

Nutritional Quality

Application of organic fertilizer in soil increases the supply of vitamin B12 in plants and Mozafar (1994) found that barley and spinach fertilized with organic materials had higher concentrations of vitamin B12, whereas sheep grazing cobalt-deficient forage were deficient in vitamin B12 (Ulvund and Pestalozzi 1990). However, human diets normally provide more than sufficient intake of B12, so deficiency is normally caused by impaired absorption due to medical conditions such as gastric atrophy (Cuskelly et al. 2007), which are common among the elderly. It is essential that patients with vitamin B12 deficiency are identified and treated with injection of the vitamin, since the condition cannot be alleviated through the diet, and B12 deficiency causes irreversible damage to the nervous system if not treated. The symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency can be masked if the diet contains large amounts of folate, so folate fortification of foods can be a serious health risk for older people...

Water security

Saltwater infiltration also has severe adverse impacts upon agricultural practices. As saltwater infiltrates the aquifers and soils, many salt-intolerant traditional crops, such as taro or pulaka, die from salt contamination, which affects the traditional diet of islanders. For example, across the Pacific, taro crop is a fundamental element of islanders' diet. Because of salt contamination in soils, many island communities have been forced to relocate their plantations further inland or in higher grounds. For atolls, which culminate at less than 5m above sea level, the situation is even more precarious some island communities (e.g. in Tuvalu) have started growing traditional crops in tin cans since they are unable to relocate to higher grounds. Other communities are switching to salt-resistant crops. However, these are expensive or difficult to obtain. Indeed, some require genetic modification to adapt to saline soils (e.g. tomato and rice), or others are not part of the traditional...

Mitigation options

Ruminants excrete between 75 per cent and 95 per cent of the N they ingest excess dietary N is mainly excreted in the urine, whereas dung N excretion remains relatively constant (Castillo et al, 2000 Eckard et al, 2007). Of the dietary N consumed by ruminants, < 30 per cent is utilized for production, with > 60 per cent lost from the grazing system (Whitehead, 1995). The effective N application rate within a urine patch from a dairy cow is commonly between 800 and 1300kg N ha (Eckard and Chapman, 2006), and N is deposited at concentrations that are orders of magnitude greater than what soil-plant Genetic manipulation or animal breeding may improve the N conversion efficiency within the rumen, or produce animals that urinate more frequently or walk while urinating, all leading to lower N concentrations or greater spread of urine (de Klein and Eckard, 2008). Coffey (1996) reported that an improvement in the feed conversion efficiency ratio of 0.01kg dry matter (DM) intake per kg...

Livestock Production

Livestock respond to climate change directly through heat and humidity stresses, and they are also affected indirectly by changes in forage quantity and quality, water availability, and disease. Because heat stress reduces milk production, weight gain, and reproduction in livestock, production of pork, beef, and milk is projected to decline with warming temperatures, especially those above 5.4 F (3 C Backlund et al., 2008) (Figure 10.2). In addition, livestock losses due to heat waves are expected to increase, with the extreme heat exacerbated by rising minimum nighttime temperatures as well as increasing difficulties in providing adequate water (CCSP, 2008b).


The stegodons were a characteristic element of many of the Southeast Asian faunas, although a detailed analysis of its ecology has yet to be completed. In a study of the diet of modern and fossil elephants, Cerling et al. (1999) reported on tooth enamel from a stegodon, Stegodon sp., a species from Dhok Pathan, Pakistan, dated at 7.4 Ma old. The S13C values obtained for this specimen indicates that C4 grasses would likely constitute a large part of its diet. Extrapolating the likely diet of Pleistocene stegodons from this one data point is speculative at best. Alternatively, van den Bergh (1999) assumes a more browsing diet for continental (as opposed to insular) stegodons, due to the presence of their low-crowned teeth. This is an area which clearly requires more research. The most common species of stegodon, Stegodon orientalis, survived until the early Holocene in Southern China (Tong and Liu 2004).

Amino Acids

Currently, almost 2 Mton of amino acids are globally allocated for feed applications. They are very effective in reducing the overall consumption of proteins and thereby indirectly reduce the environmental impact of animal production. For example, per kg weight gain, it is feasible, through selective feeding of amino acids, to reduce the nitrogen content of manure by 50 . This relates to a substantial reduction of nitrogen deposition in soil and lower atmospheric N2O emissions. Another example highlights the impact of the feed additive L- lysine on

Inorganic Substances

And human wastewater and (4) infiltration of groundwater into sewers adjacent to saltwater. The salty taste produced by the chloride concentration in potable water is variable and depends on the chemical composition of the water. In wastewater, the chloride concentration is higher than in raw water because sodium chloride (salt) is a common part of the diet and passes unchanged through the digestive system. Because conventional methods of waste treatment do not remove chloride to any significant extent, higher than usual chloride concentrations can be taken as an indication that the body of water is being used for waste disposal (Metcalf & Eddy, 2003).

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