Notation and abbreviations for Chapter

cv, cp specific heats (heat capacity per kg) at constant volume, pressure

cv, cp molar specific heats (J mol-1 K-1)

Cv, Cp heat capacities at constant volume, pressure (J K-1)

(dH)p change in enthalpy at constant pressure (J)

dH/dt, dQ/dt time rate of change of enthalpy, heat transfer rate (J s-1)

- Q, 3 W differentials for heat, work, the bar emphasizes path dependence (J) AV change in volume (m3)

AfosH°(X) standard enthalpy of fusion of substance X (J mol-1) AvapH change in enthalpy during vaporization (J)

AvapH (X) standard enthalpy of vaporization of substance X, the overbar indicates 1 mol of substance, the superscript ◦ indicates at standard conditions (usually 25 °C) (J mol-1) Ax displacement in x f number of degrees of freedom of a molecule fx


partial derivative with respect to x force (N)

ratio of specific heats cp/cv (dimensionless) enthalpy (J)

scale height of the atmosphere Boltzmann's constant (dimensional)

thermal conductivity (JmK-1) bulk mass (kg)

number density (molecules m-3) number of moles pressure (Pa, hPa)

rate of heating per unit mass (J kg-1 mol-1 s-1)

gas constant (J kg-1 K-1), gas constant for a gas G, for dry air, universal gas constant (JK-1 mol-1) density (kg m-3) temperature (K) potential temperature (K) volume (m3) initial and final volumes work in going from VA to VB work done by the system, heat taken into the system

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