Subject Index

a posteriori covariance, 62 a priori information, 33, 52, 56, 76-77, 82 accuracy, 39, 40, 63, 172 additional information, 52-53, 57-58, 60,

63-64, 72, 77-82, 189, 225, 240 adiabatic lapse rate, 130 advection, 121,129,133-134, 136, 138,

140-141,144, 147, 149, 153,158, 262-264 Alaska, 6, 49, 107, 121, 150-156, 163-164,

166, 176, 197, 199-200 albedo, 12, 49, 96, 117, 150 amplitude, 29-31, 42, 44, 46^17, 49-50, 52,

61, 64, 67, 70-72, 78, 84, 96, 99, 112, 115-116, 123, 126-127, 129, 140, 150, 154, 179, 189, 192, 199, 203, 214, 224, 239, 241-243, 255, 259, 261, 270-272, 283, 290, 298-300

amplitude decrement, 29, 31, 270-271

annual GST oscillations, 29

230-231, 260, 282 anthropogenic component, 6, 226 antipersistence, 299-301 aquifer, 149

Atlantic Subtropical High (ASH), 295 attenuation, 29, 127, 218, 272 autocorrelation function, 56, 78, 190

borehole climatology, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26-28, 30, 32, 34-38, 40, 42, 44, 46, 48, 50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 60,

62, 64, 66, 68, 70, 72, 74, 76, 78, 80, 82, 84, 86-88, 90, 92, 94, 96, 98, 100, 102, 104, 106, 108, 110, 112, 114, 116, 118-120, 122, 124, 126, 128, 130, 132, 134-136, 138, 140, 142, 144, 146, 148, 150, 152, 154, 156, 158, 160, 162, 164, 166, 168, 170, 172, 176, 178, 180, 182, 184, 186, 188, 190, 192, 194, 196, 198, 200, 202, 204, 206, 208, 210, 212, 214, 216, 218, 220, 222, 224, 226, 228, 230, 232, 234, 236, 238, 240, 242, 244, 246,

248-250, 252, 254, 256, 258, 260, 262, 264, 266, 268-270, 272, 274, 276, 278, 280, 282, 284, 286, 288, 290, 292, 294, 296, 298, 300, 302, 304-306 borehole filling fluid, 37 geophysics, 37, 267 logging, 34, 93, 99, 206, 282 boundary conditions, 44, 50, 60, 75, 93, 139,

141, 158-159, 169, 225, 289 Boussinesq approximation, 139 Brownian noise, 298-299

Canada, 22, 31, 33, 49, 76-77, 87, 92, 94, 107, 109, 118-119, 125, 127-128, 135, 137, 149-151, 155, 161, 164, 166, 176, 192, 194—195, 197-198, 200, 215, 221, 244-246, 256, 260, 288 characteristic distance, 58, 130 city heat-island effect, 7 climate, 1-32, 34-173, 175-270, 272, 274-290, 292, 294-298, 300, 302, 304-306 change, 3, 8-15,17, 19-20, 22, 25, 29, 34, 37-39, 41^15, 47,49, 51, 53, 55, 57, 59, 61, 63, 65, 67, 69, 71-73, 75, 77-79, 81-85, 87, 89, 91-93, 95, 97, 99, 101, 103, 105, 107,109, 111, 113,115, 117-119, 121, 123, 125-129, 131-133, 135, 137, 139, 141,143, 145, 147, 149-157, 159, 161, 163-165, 167-169, 171-173, 175-176,179-181,183-184, 188-189, 196-199, 209, 211, 213, 216, 218-219, 224-241, 243, 250, 252, 256, 258-261, 264-266, 268, 270, 275, 277-280, 282-283, 285-286, 295, 300, 304-306 change detection and attribution, 240 feedback, 8, 13, 229

reconstruction, 13-14, 19, 28, 34-35, 37, 40, 47-49, 52, 85-86, 92, 98, 126, 136, 138, 141, 147, 165, 171, 175-176, 192, 202, 206, 209, 211, 219-220, 222-223, 226, 232-233, 236, 262, 265, 267, 286, 305

reconstruction database, 286 variability, 2, 6, 15, 19, 36, 89, 171, 180, 199, 203-204, 208-209, 216, 226, 234-236, 240-241, 249, 268-269, 279, 281, 283, 285-288, 294-295, 297, 300, 304, 306 climate change long term, 19, 29, 42, 163, 265, 270 medium term, 19 short term, 10, 15 climatic time series, 57-58, 290, 295,

297-298, 300-301, 303 climatology, 2-4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26-28, 30, 32, 34-38, 40, 42, 44, 46, 48, 50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 60, 62, 64, 66, 68, 70, 72, 74, 76, 78, 80, 82, 84, 86-88, 90, 92, 94, 96, 98-100, 102, 104, 106, 108-110, 112, 114, 116, 118-120, 122, 124, 126, 128, 130, 132, 134-136, 138, 140, 142, 144, 146, 148, 150, 152, 154, 156, 158, 160, 162, 164, 166, 168, 170, 172, 176, 178, 180, 182, 184, 186, 188, 190, 192, 194, 196, 198, 200, 202, 204, 206, 208, 210, 212, 214, 216, 218, 220, 222, 224, 226, 228, 230, 232, 234, 236, 238-240, 242, 244, 246, 248-250, 252, 254, 256, 258, 260, 262, 264, 266, 268-270, 272, 274, 276, 278, 280, 282, 284, 286, 288, 290, 292, 294, 296, 298, 300, 302, 304-306 C02 concentration, 7, 229, 230, 23If, 249 cooling, 3-4, 6, 9, 12, 29, 33, 43-44, 46, 77, 79, 90, 97, 106, 114, 123, 133, 137, 141, 161-162, 165, 170-173, 179, 182-183, 185-188, 191, 195, 198, 204-206, 208-209, 216, 218, 222, 232, 240-241, 243, 253, 256, 258, 285 cosmic radiation, 278 covariance matrix, 56-58, 238 crustal radioactivity, 27, 259 cryosphere, 12, 268, 287 Cuba, 44, 176, 199, 201-203 cutoff approach, 55

Czech Republic, 29-30, 90, 99-100, 108, 130, 145, 176-182, 184-186, 196, 204, 216, 253, 255, 260, 270-271, 273-276, 278

Darcy velocity, 139, 149 deep continental drilling, 250 deep boreholes, 250, 253, 257, 260, 261 deforestation, 6, 13, 94, 96, 117-122, 197, 199, 229, 242

differential heating, 19, 225 discharge, 134, 137-138, 140-141, 144, 146, 148

discrete wavelet transform, 304 discretization procedure, 51 diurnal temperature range (DTR), 288 drilling, 35, 37, 39-41, 119, 167-168, 171, 189, 250, 254-255, 260-266, 283, 305 D-value, 56, 78-79

East Siberia, 152, 156-157 England, 7, 16, 18,46, 112-113, 115 environmental change, 19, 87, 96, 123, 206 evaporation, 23, 90, 92, 96-97, 100, 106-109,

113-114, 117, 199, 244 évapotranspiration, 109, 116, 122-123, 126,

155, 244, 274 external forcing, 10, 85, 128, 230-231,

238-241, 244, 285, 291 extreme event, 9, 290

finite difference, 63, 159 finite element, 63, 159

five-century-long GSTH, 211

223, 243,251,263 forward technique, 244 Fourier analysis, 291, 304 fossil fuels combustion, 229 France, 18, 176, 204 frozen ground, 149, 160 functional space inversion, 50

Gaussian noise, 66, 70-71, 73-75 Gaussian process, 58-60, 303 general circulation, 19, 72, 128, 197, 225, 286, 289

General Circulation Model (GCM), 19, 24,

72, 82, 85, 105, 165, 197-199, 239, 244 Generalized Additive Model (GAM), 290 geothermal gradient, 38, 42^14, 46, 72, 94,

137, 140-141, 150, 161-162 geothermal observatory (for climate), 1, 211,

212, 267 geothermics, 27, 37-38, 135, 177 glacial-interglacial cycle, 14 Global database of borehole and climate reconstructions, 211 Global database of borehole temperatures, 215

global warming, 6-9, 15, 49, 92, 151, 164, 167, 171, 186, 196, 198-199, 206, 222, 226-228, 230, 232, 241, 245, 249, 269, 274, 278-279, 285 Granger causality, 92, 245-248, 250 greenhouse gases, 7-8, 13, 118, 196,

228-229, 288-289, 294 Greenland, 3-4, 6, 9, 22, 35, 151-152, 154, 156,

164, 167, 169-172, 233, 256, 259-260 ground freezing, 98, 103, 198 ground surface temperature (GST), 25, 39,

groundwater circulation, 60, 62, 177 greenhouse effect enhanced, 229,237 natural, 228 GST history, 29, 33, 35, 44, 48, 52, 54, 57, 60, 63-64, 66-80, 83, 85, 87-89, 116, 119,

128-130, 132, 135, 149, 159, 162, 169, 171-172, 177, 179-180, 183, 185, 190, 192, 195-197, 204, 206, 208, 211-212, 215-218, 220-221, 249, 251-253, 255-256, 258, 265-267, 281, 306

harmonic components, 290 heat capacity, 42, 44, 63, 77, 107, 126-127,

139-140, 158, 169, 263 conduction, 29-30, 43^14, 48, 50, 60-62,

65, 70, 75, 85-86, 92, 100, 129, 133, 150, 157-158, 249, 270, 304-305

flow, 27-28, 31, 34, 38-39, 42^3, 45,47, 49-52, 63, 77, 88, 90, 93, 97-98, 102, 109,

129-132, 140, 149, 155, 161, 169, 172, 178-179, 188, 216, 256-260, 263-265

propagation equation, 44 heat-valve effect, 90 hemispherical averages, 6 high-frequency climate variations, 222 high-resolution temperature monitoring, 282 historical documents, 15, 83, 92, 249 hockey stick, 25-26, 224, 233 Holocene climate, 6, 44, 250-251, 263 human-forced climate change, 236 humidity, 12, 20, 109, 113 hydraulic conductivity, 99, 135, 144, 153 head, 139 hydrocarbon exploration, 151 hydrogeology, 27, 263 hydrothermal activity, 27

ice core, 2-3, 9, 18, 20, 22-24, 35, 48, 83, 92, 167-172, 211, 220, 223-224, 230-231, 249, 260 instrumental data, 83, 220

record, 14, 19, 92, 122, 128, 171, 182, 186, 219, 236, 249, 305-306 insulation effect, 104

Intergovermental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC), 8, 25, 115, 227, 229, 233, 237,

240, 286

International Geology Correlation Program IGCP, 270

International Heat Flow Commission (IHFC),

28, 97, 149, 176, 257, 259 inverse techniques, 49

inversion, 14, 19, 22, 33-35, 49-50, 52-58, 60, 62, 64-66, 68, 70, 72-74, 77-79, 82-83, 85-89, 93-94, 105, 124-125, 129, 132-133, 135, 141, 145, 149, 157, 159, 162, 164-165, 169, 171-172, 175, 177-178, 188, 190, 192, 198, 204-205, 207, 211, 215-216, 225, 240, 253-256, 258-259, 262, 265, 270-271, 278-279 Israel, 90-91

Kamchatka, 205-207, 254, 281

Kola superdeep project, 262

KTB - German continental deep drilling, 260

kurtosis, 293, 301

Kyoto Protocol, 25, 227

last event analysis, 50, 52

Last Glacial Maximum, 3-4, 162, 170, 188,

253, 256, 265 Late Quaternary GST change, 250 latent heat, 97-98, 103, 105-107, 109, 114,

116-117, 126, 149, 155, 158-161 Laplace transformation, 51 least-squares inversion, 53, 54, 60, 135, 141 Little Climatic Optimum (LCO), 5, 78, 183 Little Ice Age (LIA), 1, 6, 11, 25, 65, 68, 78, 83, 89, 164, 169-172, 179, 181, 183, 188, 191, 192, 194, 196, 206, 208, 234,

mean global GST, 215 Medieval Warm Period, 5-6, 11, 25, 68, 78, 169, 179, 181, 183, 188, 191-192, 206-208, 232, 241, 255, 258, 285

158, 161, 164, 167, 169, 233, 244, 256 meteorological data, 21, 48, 113, 204, 219, 223, 280-281 record, 15, 30, 32, 93, 110, 112, 128, 185, 204,211,216, 224, 267 meteorology, 17, 35, 106 micro-vegetation cover, 49 misfit function, 61, 64, 147 Monte Carlo method, 78, 169, 171 multiproxy data, 24, 83

near-surface temperature, 90, 121 noise free, 66, 68, 74, 88, 143 non-climate disturbances, 35, 93, 98 North America, 3, 6,15, 20-21, 57, 75, 100, 102-103,115-116, 121,124, 150, 171, 176,197-200, 203, 209, 211-212, 215-218, 226, 251,257, 259, 271, 280, 287 North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), 171, 248

Ocean-atmosphere, 85 ozone hole, 13

paleoclimate, 10, 19, 23-24, 27, 49, 85, 92, 98, 126, 133, 138, 147, 156, 171, 176, 192, 209, 219, 222-223, 226-227, 231, 234, 236, 244, 262-265, 267, 305 parametrization, 127, 262 past climate reconstruction, 13, 19, 35, 52,

85, 136, 141, 220, 232 periglacial, 161, 281

196-197, 205, 217, 259-260, 269 persistence, 57, 78, 96, 102, 108, 125, 156, 189,299

129, 132, 149, 243, 261 phase shift, 29, 102, 122, 216, 270 phenology, 268 power spectrum, 302

precipitation, 12, 20, 42, 49, 90, 97-98, 100, 102, 106-111, 113-116, 127-128, 142, 148-149, 153-155, 164, 167, 198, 274, 277, 285

pre-observational mean temperature (POM),

89, 128, 194 present-day warming, 36, 269, 278 probability distribution, 58-59, 285, 291, 293,

radiative forcing, 249 ramp model, 119,201,202 rainfall, 98, 102, 106-109, 111-114, 123, 127, 295

recent climate change, 25, 92, 172, 196, 227, 236, 238, 240-241, 243, 268, 275, 278, 305

Recent Global Warming, 15, 49, 92, 222, 230 recharge, 113-115, 137-138, 140-142,

148-149 recharge flux, 113

remote climate change, 209, 250, 259-261, 264, 266

scaling properties, 57, 297 spectrum, 298 seasonal change, 111, 114, 123, 126 shallow boreholes, 63, 88, 129, 196, 263,

269-270, 276, 278, 282, 306 short-term sensitivity, 48 signal-in-noise problem, 128, 236 singular value decomposition, 50, 53, 213 skewness, 293, 301 Slovenia, 204, 253-255, 278 snow cover, 12, 35, 49, 90, 92, 97-98, 100,

102-106, 109, 111, 116-117, 121-124, 126-128, 152-156, 164, 249, 274, 279-280

snowfall, 22, 98, 102, 106, 108, 111, 113, 115 soil moisture, 90, 99-100, 103, 105-106, 114,

117, 155, 198, 267, 289 solar constant, 42 solar irradiance, 10, solar radiation, 7, 10, 236 soil-air temperature coupling, 49, 117, 123 spaghetti diagram, 75-76, 180-181, 183, 202,

205, 209 spatial discretization, 63 spatial patterns of temperature variations, 223 steady-state temperature, 46^-7, 50, 60,

step model, 50, 52-53, 63, 119, 201-202 stochastic component, 295 Sub-Polar Low, 295

subsurface temperature, 10, 26-29, 33, 35, 37, 39, 41^5, 47, 49, 51-53, 55, 57, 59-61, 63, 65, 67, 69, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81-83, 85-87, 89, 91, 93, 95, 97-101,

117-121, 123, 125, 127-135, 137, 139-141, 143, 145, 147, 149, 151, 153, 155, 157, 159, 161, 163-165, 167, 169, 171, 173, 222, 225, 244-245, 250-251, 260-261, 267, 269, 271, 273, 275-277, 279, 281-283, 285, 287, 289, 291, 293, 295, 297, 299, 301, 303-305 subsurface temperature monitoring, 100, 267, 269, 271, 273, 275-277, 279, 281, 283, 285, 287, 289, 291, 293, 295, 297, 299, 301, 303-304 superdeep boreholes, 260 surface air temperature (SAT), 1, 92, 97, 176

surface vegetation effect, 113, 116, 154 surface warming, 29, 43, 46, 98, 104, 141, 161, 192, 199, 223, 249, 271, 273-274, 288

synthetic temperature profile, 30, 95, 159

temperature disturbance, 39-40, 46-47, 119, 140-141, 197, 264

monitoring, 29-31, 90, 100, 102-103, 109, 118, 123-124, 126-127, 151-153, 155, 164, 267-273, 275-279, 281-283, 285-287, 289-291, 293, 295, 297, 299-301, 303-304, 306 offset, 98

variability, 234, 287-289, 291, 295 temperature-depth profde 14, 26-29, 33-37, 42^44, 47-50, 52, 63, 65-70, 77, 82, 86-89, 92, 93, 95, 115, 118, 123, 128, 132-134, 136-138, 140, 143, 149, 157, 159, 161-163, 165, 168, 171, 175, 177, 189, 191, 192, 194, 196, 198, 199, 201, 203, 205, 209, 215, 221-223, 243-245, 251, 252, 254-256, 258, 263, 265, 267, 271, 278, 281, 282, 305 temporal discretization, 63

130, 161-162, 192 thawing, 97-98, 103, 106, 109, 116, 118, 123,

126, 155, 157-165, 259, 282 thermal conductivity, 27, 38, 40-44, 63, 72-75, 77, 80, 88, 98, 107, 126, 130, 134, 139-140, 144, 158, 169, 178-179, 252-255, 260, 263, 276 thermal diffusivity, 29-30, 40, 42, 46, 93, 104, 111, 121, 123-124, 126-127, 150, 160, 169, 251,270, 280 thermal equilibrium, 37, 150, 254, 278 memory, 47 recovery, 39 resistance, 54, 88 thermohaline circulation, 9, 12, 297 thermometer, 15-16, 37, 48 thermophysical parameters, 50-51, 53-54, 60,

62, 65, 68, 75, 129 transient signal, 146 transpiration, 90, 96, 100, 109, 113, 244 tree-ring data, 20, 219, 221, 223

UN Environmental Program (UNEP), 227 United States, 99, 115, 197, 287, 295 urban heat island effect, 274, 289 urbanization, 13, 118, 199, 206, 228, 295 U-shape, 28-31, 44, 77, 94, 115, 132, 137, 140, 144, 162-163, 178, 189, 192, 196

variability measures, 293 volcanic aerosols, 85, 236

water-ice conversion, 155 weather, 1-2, 16, 19-20, 30, 32, 57, 90, 92, 99, 106, 117, 124-125, 127, 155, 187, 192, 197-198, 222, 277-280, 283, 285-286, 294-295, 297-298, 300-301 winter severity index, 183, 185 World Climate Report, 25

zero-curtain effect, 103

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