Note: All Internet addresses accessed 25 June 2008

Ackermann, T. (2004) 'Distributed resources in a re-regulated market environment', PhD thesis, Department of Electrical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm.

Ackermann, T., Andersson, G. and Söder, L. (2001) 'Distributed generation: A definition', Electricity Power Systems Research 57, 195-204.

Adams, W. M., Brockington, D., Dyson, J. and Vira, B. (2003) 'Managing tragedies: Understanding conflict over common pool resources', Science 302, 1915-16.

Ajodhia, V. and Hakvoort, R. (2005) 'Economic regulation of quality in electricity distribution networks', Utilities Policy 13, 211-21.

Aligica, P. D. (2005) 'Scenarios and the growth of knowledge: Notes on the epistemic element in scenario building', Technological Forecasting and Social Change 72, 815-24.

Anderson, K., Shackley, S., Mander, S. and Bows, A. (2005) 'Decarbonising the UK: Energy for a climate conscious future', Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Manchester.

Andrews, C. J. (2005) 'Energy security as a rationale for governmental action', IEEE Technology and Society Magazine Summer 2005, 16-25.

Arthur, W. B. (1989) 'Competing technologies, increasing returns and lock-in by historic events', Economics Journal 99, 116-31.

Arthur, W. B. (1994) 'Increasing returns and path dependence in the economy', University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.

Ashton Hayes Parish Council (2006) 'Ashton Hayes Going Carbon Neutral project update July 2006',

Awerbuch, S. (2003) 'Costing fossil fuels: The true cost of fossil-fired electricity', Power Economics, May 2003, 17-21.

Awerbuch, S. (2006) 'A brief overview of wind economics in the 21st century', doc.

Awerbuch, S., Jansen, J. and Beurskens, L. (2005) 'The role of wind in enhancing UK energy diversity and security', shimondocs/AirtricityUK_Mar05.pdf.

Baber, W. F. and Bartlett, R. V. (2005) Deliberative environmental politics: Democracy and ecological rationality, MIT Press, London.

Bach, P. F., Nielsen, J. E., Hindsberger, M., Varming, S. and Gaardestrup, C. (2003) 'Active Networks as a tool to integrate large amounts of distributed generation', presented at the conference Energy Technologies for post Kyoto Targets in the Medium Term, 19-21 May, Riso, Roskilde.

Bache, I. and Flinders, M. (2004) 'Multi-level governance and British politics', in Bache, I. and Flinders, M. (eds) Multi-level Governance, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 93-107.

Baer, P. and Mastrandrea, M. (2006) 'High stakes: Designing emissions pathways to reduce the risk of dangerous climate change', Institute for Public Policy Research, London.

Bamberger, C., Linehan, J. and Waelde, T. (2001) 'The Energy Charter Treaty in 2000: In a new phase', in Roggenkamp, M., Redgewell, C., Ronne, A. and del Guayo, I. (eds) Energy Law in Europe, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 171-212.

Barker, T. and Kohler, J. (1998) International competitiveness and Environmental Policies, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.

Bauknecht, D. and Brunekreeft, G. (2008) 'Distributed generation and the regulation of electricity networks', in Sioshansi, F. P. (ed.) Competitive Electricity Markets: Design, Implementation, Performance, Elsevier, Oxford.

Bauman, Z. (1976) Socialism: The Active Utopia, George Allen and Unwin, London.

Bayliss, K. and McKinley, T. (2007) 'Privatising basic utilities in Sub-Saharan Africa: the MDG impact', International Poverty Centre, UNDP, Brasilia.

Begg, D., Cremer, J., Danthine, J., Edwards, J., Grilli, V., Neven, D., Seabright, P., Sinn, H., Venables, A. and Wyplosz, C. (1993) 'Making sense of subsidiarity', Centre for Economic Policy Research, London.

Benders, R. M. J., Kok, R., Moll, H. C., Wiersma, G. and Noorman, K. J. (2006) 'New approaches for household energy conservation - in search of personal household energy budgets and energy reduction options', Energy Policy 34, 3612-22.

Bentley, R. W. (2002) 'Global oil and gas depletion: An overview', Energy Policy 30, 189-205.

Bentley, T. (2003) 'Governance as learning: The challenge of democracy', http://

Bertoldi, P. and Atanasiu, B. (2007) 'Electricity consumption and efficiency trends in the enlarged European Union - status report 2006', European Commission Report EUR 22753 EN, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra.

Besant-Jones, J. E. (2006) 'Reforming power markets in developing countries: What have we learned?' The World Bank, Washington, DC.

Betz, R., Rogge, K. and Schleich, J. (2006) 'An early assessment of national a allocation plans for Phase 2 of EU emissions trading', Climate Policy 6, 361-94.

Betz, R., Schleich, J. and Eichhammer, W. (2004) 'Designing National Allocation Plans for EU-emissions trading - a first analysis of the outcomes', Energy and Environment 15, 375-425.

Bijker, W. E., Hughes, T. P. and Pinch, T. J. (eds) (1987) The Social Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Bijker, W. E. (1997) Of Bicycles, Bakelites and Bulbs: Toward a Theory of Sociotechnical Change, MIT Press, Boston.

Blair, T. (2004) 'PM speech on climate change', 14 September, http://www.

Blair, T. (2005) in 'Blair opens debate on the nuclear option', The Guardian, 30 November, Manchester, p. 4.

Blair, T. (2006) 'Energy issue "back with a vengeance"', Speech by the prime minister to the CBI annual dinner, 16 May, output/Page9469.asp.

Blair, T. (2007) 'Blair defiant over nuclear plans', uk_news/politics/6366725.stm.

BMU (Federal Ministry for the Environment Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety) (2006) 'Renewable energies: Innovations for the future', BMU, Berlin.

Boardman, B., Darby, S., Killip, G., Hinnells, M., Jardine, C., Palmer, J. and Sinden, G. (2005) '40% house', Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford.

Bodansky, D. (2007) 'International sectoral agreements in a post-2012 climate framework', Working Paper, Pew Centre on Global Climate Change, Arlington, VA.

Bonvillan, W. (2007) 'Testimony before the Congressional hearing on "Establishing the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) - HR 364"', US House of Representatives Subcommittee on Energy and Environment, Committee on Science and Technology, 26th April.

Borges, U., Freitag, H., Hurtienne, T. and Nitsch, N. (1985) Proalcool: Economia politica e avaliagao socio-economica do programa brasileiro de bio-combustiveis, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Aracaju.

Bovenberg, A. L. and Goulder, L. H. (2000) 'Neutralising the adverse industry impacts of CO2 abatement policies: What does it cost?', in Carroro, C. and Metcalf, G. (eds) Behavioural and Distributional Impacts of Environmental Policies, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Brack, D., Grubb, M. and Windram, C. (2000) International trade and climate change policies, Earthscan, London.

Brouwer, R., O'Connor, M. and Radermacher, W. (1999) 'Greened national statistical and modelling procedures: The GREENSTAMP approach to the calculation of environmentally adjusted national income figures', International Journal of Sustainable Development 2, 7-31.

Brown, N. and Michael, M. (2003) 'A sociology of expectations: Retrospecting prospects and prospecting retrospects', Technology Analysis and Strategic Management 15, 3-18.

Burges, K. and Twele, J. (2005) 'Power systems operation with high penetration of renewable energy - the German case', presented at the International Conference on Future Power Systems, 16-18 November, Amsterdam.

Cameron, D. (2005) 'Speech at the launch of the Renewable Energy Association', 1 December, REA, London.

Campbell, C. J. (2004) The Coming Oil Crisis, Multi-Science Publishing, Brentwood.

Carbon Trust (2005a) 'The European emissions trading scheme: Implications for industrial competitiveness', The Carbon Trust, London.

Carbon Trust (2005b) 'The UK Climate Change Programme: potential evolution for business and the public sector', The Carbon Trust, London.

Carbon Trust (2006a) 'Allocation and competitiveness in the EU Emissions Trading System: Options for Phase II and beyond', The Carbon Trust, London.

Carbon Trust (2006b) 'Policy frameworks for renewables: Analysis on policy frameworks to drive future investment in near and long-term renewable power in the UK', The Carbon Trust, London.

CEC (Commission of the European Communities) (2003) 'Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 2003 establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community and amending Council Directive 96/61/EC', European Commission, Brussels.

CEC (2008) 'Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading system of the Community', European Commission, Brussels.

Charnovitz, S. (2003) 'Trade and climate: Potential conflicts and synergies', in Aldy, J., Ashton, J., Baron, R., Bodansky, D., Charnovitz, S., Diringer, E., Heller, T., Pershing, J., Shukla, P., Tubiana, L., Tudela, F. and Wang, X., Beyond Kyoto: Advancing the International Effort Against Climate Change, Pew Center for Climate Change, Arlington VA.

Chasek, P., Porter, G. and Welsh-Brown, J. (2006) Global Environmental Politics, Westview, Boulder CO.

Chick, M. (2006) 'Ownership, pricing, and restructuring in the British, French and American electricity industries since 1945', presented at the XIV International Economic History Congress, 21-5 August, Helsinki.

Chief Scientific Adviser's Energy Research Review Group (2002) 'Recommendations to inform the Performance and Innovation Unit energy policy review', Office of Science and Technology, London.

Clarke, T., Campbell, B. and Laxer, G. (2006) 'Fuelling Fortress America', Canadian Centre for Policy Analysis, Ottawa.

Clinch, J. P., Dunne, L. and Dresner, S. (2006) 'Environmental and wider implications of political impediments to environmental tax reform', Energy Policy 34, 960-70.

Cobb, C., Halstead, T. and Rowe, J. (1995) The Genuine Progress Indicator: Summary of Data and Methodology, Redefining Progress, San Francisco.

Connor, P. and Mitchell, C. (2002) 'A review of four European regulatory systems and their impacts on the deployment of distributed generation', Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Petten.

Cook, P. and Surrey, J. (1977) 'Energy policy: strategies for uncertainty', Martin Robertson, London.

CoRWM (Committee on Radioactive Waste Management) (2006) 'Managing our radioactive wastes safely: CoRWM's recommendations to Government', Doc 700, July,

CoRWM (2007) 'Re-iteration of CoRWM's position on nuclear new build', Doc 2162.2, September,

Council of the European Union (2007a) 'Presidency conclusions', Brussels European Council 8/9 March, Data/docs/pressData/en/ec/93135.pdf.

Council of the European Union (2007b) 'Council conclusions on climate change', 2785th Environment Council meeting, 20 February, Brussels.

Cowan R (1990) 'Nuclear power reactors: A study in technological lock-in', Journal of Economic History 50, 514-67.

Cox, P. M., Betts, R. A., Jones, C. D., Spall, S. A. and Totterdell, I. J. (2000) 'Acceleration of global warming due to carbon cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model', Nature 408, 184-7.

Crouch, M. (2006) 'Developing long-term incentives for investment within a RPI-X framework', presented at the conference Distribution Europe, 17-19 May, Barcelona.

Daly, H. (1996) Beyond Growth: The Economics of Sustainable Development, Beacon Press, Boston.

Darby, S. (2006) 'The effectiveness of feedback on energy consumption - a review for Defra of the literature on metering, billing and direct displays', Environmental Change Institute, Oxford University.

Darcy, M. (1999) 'The discourse of "community" and the reinvention of social housing policy in Australia', Urban Studies 36, 13-26.

Darling, A. (2006) 'Speech to the Fabian Society', 5 June 2006, London.

David, P. A. (1985) 'Clio and the economics of QWERTY', American Economic Review 75, 332-7.

Davies, W. (2005) 'Evidence-based policy and democracy', http://www.

DBERR (2008) 'Meeting the energy challenge: A white paper on nuclear power', Cm 7296, January, The Stationery Office, London.

DCLG (Department of Communities and Local Government) (2006) 'Towards a zero carbon future: Communities and local government news release 2006/0174', 13 December, DCLG, London.

Deffeyes, K. S. (2005) Beyond Oil: The View from Hubbert's Peak, Hill and Wang, New York.

Defra (2005) 'The validity of food miles as an indicator of sustainable development, final report', produced for Defra by AEA Technology Environment, Defra, London.

Defra (2006a) 'Government welcomes EU move to address aviation and climate change', Press release, 20 December, DEFRA, London.

Defra (2006b) 'Consultation on measures to reduce carbon emissions in the large non-energy intensive business and public sectors', Defra, London.

Defra (2008) 'Review of work on the environmental sustainability of international biofuels production and use', report by AEA Technology plc., Defra, London.

de Oliveira, A. and MacKerron, G. (1992) 'Is the World Bank approach to structural reform supported by experience of electricity privatisation in the UK?', Energy Policy 20, 153-62.

Depledge, J. (2006) 'The opposite of learning: Ossification in the climate change regime', Global Environmental Politics 6, 1-22.

de Vries, B., van Vuuren, D. and Hoogwijk, M. (2007) 'Renewable energy resources: Their global potential for the first half of the 21st Century at a global level - an integrated approach', Energy Policy 35, 2590-610.

DfT (Department for Transport) (2003) 'The future of air transport - White Paper', DfT, London.

DfT (2006a) 'Public transport statistics bulletin GB: 2006 Edition', Transport Statistics, London.

DfT (2006b) 'Transport Statistics Great Britain, 32nd Edition', Dft, London.

DfT (2007) 'Transport Trends - 2006 edition', Transport Statistics, London.

Dobbyn, J. and Thomas, G. (2005) 'Seeing the light: The impact of micro-generation on our use of energy', Sustainable Consumption Roundtable, London.

Dobson, A. (2007) 'A politics of global warming: the social-science resource', 4486.jsp.

DoE (Department of Energy) (1982) 'Speech on energy policy - Energy Paper Number 51', HMSO, London.

Dosi, G. (1988) 'The nature of the innovative process', in Dosi, G., Freeman, C., Nelson, R., Silverberg, G. and Soete, L. (eds) Technical Change and Economic Theory, Pinter, London, pp. 221-38.

Dresner, S. and Ekins, P. (2004) 'The distributional impacts of economic instruments to limit greenhouse emissions from transport', Research Discussion Paper 19, Policy Studies Institute, London.

Dresner, S. and Ekins, P. (2006) 'Economic instruments to improve UK home energy efficiency without negative social impacts', Fiscal Studies 21, 47-74.

Dryzek, J. S. (1997) The Politics of the Earth: Environmental Discourses, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Dryzek, J. S., Downs, D., Hernes, H. K. and Schlosberg, D. (2003) Green States and Social Movements: Environmentalism in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, and Norway, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

DTI (Department for Trade and Industry) (2003a) 'Competing in the global economy - the innovation challenge', DTI Economics Paper 7, DTI, London.

DTI (2003b) 'Options for a low carbon future', DTI Economics Working Paper 4, DTI, London.

DTI (2003c) 'Our energy future - creating a low carbon economy', Energy White Paper, Cm 5761, DTI, London.

DTI (2004) 'Digest of UK Energy Statistics', HMSO, London.

DTI (2006a) 'Our energy challenge: Power from the people. Microgeneration strategy', DTI, London.

DTI (2006b) 'Reform of the Renewables Obligation and statutory consultation on the Renewables Obligation Order 2007: An Energy Review consultation', DTI, London.

DTI (2006c) 'The energy challenge: Energy Review report 2006', Cm 6887, DTI, London.

DTI (2006d) 'Our energy challenge: Securing clean, affordable energy for the long-term. Consultation document', DTI, London.

DTI (2007a) 'Meeting the energy challenge: A white paper on energy', CM 7124, The Stationery Office, London.

DTI (2007b) 'The future of nuclear power: The role of nuclear power in a low carbon economy. Consultation document', DTI, London.

Dubash, N. K. (2002) 'Power Politics: Equity and Environment in Electricity Reform', World Resources Institute, Washington, DC.

Eames, M. and McDowall, W. (2006) 'Systems innovation and the transition to a sustainable hydrogen economy: A multi-level perspective', presented at the SPRU 40th Anniversary Conference, 11-13 September, University of Sussex.

Easterlin, R. A. (2002) Happiness in economics, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.

EC (European Commission) (2006a) 'Action plan for energy efficiency: Realising the potential', CEC COM(06)545, Commission of the European Communities, Brussels.

EC (2006b) 'Directive 2006/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on energy end-use efficiency and energy services and repealing Council Directive 93/76/EEC', Commission of the European Communities, Brussels.

EC (2007a) 'An energy policy for Europe', CEC (COM(07)1), Commission of the European Communities, Brussels.

EC (2007b) 'Limiting global climate change to 2 degrees Celsius', COM(2007)2, Commission of the European Communities, Brussels.

EC (2007c) 'Towards a European strategic energy technology plan', C0M(2006) 847 final, Commission of the European Communities, Brussels.

Ellerman, A. D. and Buchner, B. (2006) 'Over-allocation or abatement? A preliminary analysis of the EU ETS based upon the 2005 emissions data', Working Paper, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Trieste.

Ellis, J. and Toirpak, D. (2006) 'Linking GHG emissions trading systems and markets COM/ENV/EPOC/IEA/SLT (2006) 6', Environment Directorate, International Energy Agency, Paris.

Ellis, J., Winkler, H., Corfee-Morlot, J., and Gagnon-Lebrun, F. (2007) 'CDM: Taking stock and looking forward', Energy Policy 35, 15-28.

Enviros Consulting Ltd. (2006) 'Appraisal of years 1-4 of the UK Emissions Trading Scheme', Defra, London.

EST (Energy Saving Trust) (2005) 'Potential for microgeneration: Study and analysis', EST, London.

EST (2006) 'Habits of a lifetime - European energy usage report', EST, London.

Euractiv (2008) 'MEPs seek reduced biofuel commitments', Report posted 28 May at

Euroabstracts (1998) 'Exploring the grey areas', Euroabstracts 36, 1-98.

EZ (2004) 'Innovation in energy policy', Energy Strategy and Consumption Directorate, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Netherlands.

Farrow, S. and Toman, M. (1999) 'Using benefit-cost analysis to improve environmental regulations', Environment 41, 12-37.

Ferry, J. (2007) 'Eat your greens', The Guardian, G2 Section, 07 June, p. 18.

Forss, K., Reubien, C. C., and Carlsson, J. (2002) 'Process use of evaluations: Types of use that precede lessons learned and feedback', Evaluation 8, 29-45.

Foster, J. (1997) 'Introduction: environmental value and the scope of economics', in Foster, J. (ed.) Valuing nature? Economics, ethics and environment, Routledge, London, pp. 1-17.

Foxon, T. (2003) 'Inducing innovation for a low-carbon future: Drivers, barriers and policies', Carbon Trust, London.

Foxon, T., Kohler, J., and Oughton, C. (eds) (2008) Innovations for a Low Carbon Economy: Economic, Institutional and Management Approaches, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.

Freeman, C. (1992) The Economics of Hope, Pinter, London.

Freeman, C. and Louga, F. (2001) As Time Goes By: From the Industrial Revolutions to the Information Revolution, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Freeman, C. and Perez, C. (1988) 'Structural crises of adjustment, business cycles and investment behaviour', in Dosi, G., Freeman, C., Nelson, R., Silverberg, G. and Soete, L. (eds) Technical Change and Economic Theory, Pinter, London, pp. 38-66.

Frontier Economics (2003) 'Regulatory mechanisms for dealing with uncertainty', report for Ofgem, March 1 2003, com/europe/en/publications/.

Future Foundation (2006) 'Energy efficiency - public attitude, private action', = 347.

Gallacher, K. (2005) Putting Development First: The Importance of Policy Space in the WTO and IFIs, Zed Books, London.

Gallagher, K. S., Holdren, J. P. and Sagar, A. D. (2006) 'Energy technology innovation', Annual Review of Environmental Resources 31, 193-237.

Geels, F. W. (2002a) 'Technological transitions as evolutionary reconfiguration processes: A multi-level perspective and a case-study', Research Policy 31, 1257-74.

Geels, F. W. (2002b) Understanding the Dynamics of Technological Transitions: A Co-Evolutionary and Socio Technical Analysis', Twente University Press, Twente.

Geels, F. W. (2004) 'From sectoral systems of innovation to socio-technical systems: Insights about dynamics and change from sociology and institutional theory', Research Policy 33, 897-920.

Geels, F. W. (2005) 'Processes and patterns in transitions and system innovations: Refining the co-evolutionary multi-level perspective', Technological Forecasting and Social Change 72, 681-96.

Geels, F. W., Elzen, B. and Green, K. (2004) 'General introduction: System innovation and transitions to sustainability', in Geels, F. W., Elzen, B. and Green, K. (eds) System Innovation and the Transition to Sustainability: Theory, Evidence and Policy, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, pp. 1-16.

Geyer, A. and Davies, A. (2000) 'Managing project-system interfaces: Case studies of railway projects in restructured UK and German markets', Research Policy 29, 991-1013.

Gibbs, T. and Retallack, S. (2006) 'Trading up: Reforming the European Union's Emissions Trading System', Institute for Public Policy Research, London.

Golub, J. (ed.) (1998) Global Competition and EU Environmental Policy, Routledge, London.

Graham-Harrison, E. (2006) 'Energy-hungry China warms to solar water heaters', 5 June, Reuters China.

Green, D. (2004) 'Rethinking energy regulation', presented at the 19th World Energy Congress, 5-9 September, Sydney.

Greene, O. (2004) 'Environmental Issues', in Baylis, J., Smith, S. and Owens, P. (eds) (2004) Globalization of World Politics, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 387-414.

Greenpeace (2005) 'Decentralising power: An energy revolution for the 21st century', Greenpeace, London.

Greenpeace (2006) Decentralising UK energy: Cleaner, cheaper, more secure energy for the 21st century, Greenpeace, London.

Gross, R. (2004) 'Technologies and innovation for system change in the UK: Status, prospects and system requirements of some leading renewable energy options', Energy Policy 32, 1905-19.

Gross, R., Heptonstall, P. and Blyth, W. (2007) 'Investment in electricity generation: The role of costs, incentives and risks', UK Energy Research Centre, London.

Grubb, M. (1997) 'Technologies, energy systems and the timing of CO2 emissions abatement: An overview of economic issues', Energy Policy 25, 159-72.

Grubb, M. (2005) 'Technology innovation and climate change policy: An overview of issues and options', Keio Economic Studies, 41, 103-32.

Grubb, M. and Ferrario, F. (2006) 'False confidences: Forecasting errors and emission caps in CO2 trading systems', Climate Policy 6, 495-501.

Grubb, M. and Neuhoff, K. (2006) 'Allocation and competitiveness in the EU emissions trading scheme: Policy overview', Climate Policy 6, 7-30.

Grubb, M., Vroliijk, C. and Brack, D. (1999) 'The Kyoto Protocol: A guide and assessment', Royal Institute for International Affairs, London.

Grubb, M. and Yamin, F. (2001) 'Climate collapse at The Hague: What happened and where do we go from here?', International Affairs 77, 261-76.

Guardian (2008a) 'MEP seeks Europe-wide ban on "splash and dash" biofuel trading', May 19, The Guardian, p. 23.

Guardian (2008b) 'Top scientists warn against rush to biofuel', March 25, The Guardian, p. 1.

Hadjilambrinos, C. (2000) 'Understanding technology choice in electricity industries: A comparative study of France and Denmark', Energy Policy 28, 1111-26.

Hadley Centre (2005) 'Climate Change and the greenhouse effect: Briefing Paper', Met Office, Exeter.

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Halpern, D. and Bates, C. (2004) 'Personal responsibility and changing behaviour: The state of knowledge and its implications for public policy', Prime Minister's Strategy Unit, Cabinet Office, London.

Hansen, J. (2007) 'Scientific reticence and sea level rise', Environmental Research Letters 2, 1-6.

Hargrave, T. (2000) 'An upstream/downstream hybrid approach to greenhouse gas emissions trading', Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington DC.

Harrison, D., Klevnas, P., Sorrell, S., and Radov, D. (2005) 'Interaction of Greenhouse Gas Emission Allowance Trading with Green And White Certificate Schemes', report to DG Environment, European Commission, National Economic Research Associates, London.

Hay, C. (2002) Political Analysis: A Critical Introduction, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.

HCEAC (House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee) (2007) 'The EU Emissions Trading Scheme: Lessons for the future', Second Report of Session 2006-07, HCEAC, London.

Healey, P. (1999) 'Sites, jobs and portfolios: Economic development discourses in the planning system', Urban Studies 36, 27-42.

Helm, D. (2004a) Energy, the State and the Market: British Energy Policy Since 1979, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Helm, D. (2004b) 'The new regulatory agenda', The Social Market Foundation, London.

Helm, D. (2005a) 'The assessment: The new energy paradigm', Oxford Review of Economic Policy 21, 1-18.

Helm, D. (2005b) 'The case for regulatory reform', in Helm, D. (ed.) The Future of Infrastructure Regulation, Oxera, Oxford, pp. 1-9.

Helm, D. (2006) 'Energy policy: Politics v economics', 15 May, New Statesman.

Helm, D. and Hepburn, C. (2005) 'Carbon contracts and energy policy: An outline proposal', pdf.

Hepburn, C. (2006) 'Regulation by prices, quantities or both: A review of instrument choice', Oxford Review of Economic Policy 22, 226-47.

Hirsch, R. L., Bezdek, R. and Wendling, R. (2006) 'Peaking of world oil production: Impacts, mitigation and risk management', Nova Science, Huntington NY.

Hirschl, B. and Petschow, U. (2005) 'Building a global renewable energy regime -what can be learned from other (environmental) regimes?', presented at the 2005 Berlin Conference on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change, 2-3 December, Berlin.

HM Government (2006) 'Climate change: The UK programme', The Stationery Office, London.

HM Government (2007) 'Draft Climate Change Bill', CM7040, The Stationery Office, London.

Hodgson, G. M. (1988) Economics and Institutions: A Manifesto for a Modern Institutional Economics, Polity Press, Cambridge.

Hodgson, G. M. (1999) Economics and Utopia: Why the Learning Economy is Not the End of History, Routledge, London.

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Hourcarde, J. C., Demailly, D., Neuhoff, K. and Sato, M. (2008) 'Differentiation and dynamics of EU ETS industrial competitiveness impacts', Climate Strategies,

House of Commons (2007) 'Minutes of evidence taken before Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Committee. Climate change: the "citizen's agenda"', 31 January, cmenvfru/uc88-vi/uc8802.htm.

House of Commons Science and Technology Committee (2003a) 'Government response to the Committee's Fourth Report, Towards a non-carbon fuel economy: Research development and demonstration', Sixth special report of Session 2002-03, The Stationery Office, London.

House of Commons Science and Technology Committee (2003b) 'Towards a noncarbon fuel economy: Research, development and demonstration', fourth report of Session 2002-03, The Stationery Office, London.

Hoyos, C. (2007) 'The new seven sisters: Oil and gas giants dwarf western rivals', 13 March, Financial Times,

Hufbauer, G. and Schott, J. (2005) 'Nafta revisited: Achievements and challenges', Institute for International Economics, Washington DC.

Hughes, T. P. (1983) Networks of Power: Electrification in Western Society, 1880-1930', Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Hultman, N. E. and Koomey, J. G. (2007) 'The risk of surprise in energy technology costs', Environmental Research Letters 2 (034002), 1-7.

Humphrey, L. and Shaw, K. (2004) 'Radical devolution and democratic renewal: Developing a radical approach to stakeholder involvement in the English regions', Environment and Planning A 36, 2183-202.

IEA (International Energy Agency) (1994) 'History of the IEA: The first 20 Years (Volume I)', IEA, Paris.

IEA (2002) 'Distributed generation in liberalised electricity markets', IEA/OECD, Paris.

IEA (2004) 'History of the IEA (Volume IV)', IEA, Paris.

IEA (2006a) 'Energy policies of IEA countries, Denmark 2006 review'. IEA/OECD, Paris.

IEA (2006b) 'Energy technology perspectives: Scenarios and strategies to 2050', OECD Energy 2006, vol. 6.

IEA (2006c) 'World energy outlook 2006', OECD/IEA, Paris.

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