Sets for International Level
This list of indicators was agreed upon in Convention on Biodiversity/Conference of the Parties 7 (CBD/COP7) to evaluate chosen targets (UNEP 2003c). This set is used also for reporting on indicators and monitoring at national level (UNEP 2003b).
European Environment Agency (EEA) Core Set of Indicators
The proposed EEA set contains 354 indicators (main indicators and subindicators); 206 of these are from more developed areas (issues of climate change, air pollution, ozone depletion, and water, excluding ecological quality, waste and material flows, energy, transport, and agriculture), and 148 are from less developed areas (biodiversity, terrestrial environmental, water ecological quality, tourism and fisheries). See themes.eea.eu.int/indicators/.
Environmental Pressure Indicators has been published twice by Eurostat (Eurostat 1999, 2001c) as a result of the Commission Communication on Environmental Indicators and Green National Accounts in 1994 (COM (94) 670). The most recent edition
This annex was inspired by Dr. Peter L. Daniels from the Faculty of Environmental Sciences at Griffith University, Nathan, Australia.
contains forty-eight indicators, covering nine environmental policy fields, including a breakdown by sector where possible and relevant. See europa.eu.int/comm/eurostat/.
The report Measuring Progress Towards a More Sustainable Europe (Eurostat 2001b) contains sixty-three indicators, of which twenty-two are mainly social, twenty-one are mainly economical, and sixteen are mainly environmental. The publication draws on and extends the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) list of fifty-nine core sustainable development indicators; this list is structured along a more policy-oriented classification than the previous one, according to the relevant sustainabil-ity dimensions (four), themes (fifteen), and subthemes (thirty-eight). As a result, more than 66 percent of the indicators presented are comparable with those in the UNCSD core list. See www.eu-datashop.de.
Global Environment Assessment and Reporting Under the Global Environmental Outlook (GEO) Program
The Global Environment Outlook (UNEP 2003a) is an analysis of environmental conditions around the world on the basis of environmental indicators. It is a comprehensive and authoritative review undertaken by approximately thirty-five regional and global Collaborating Centers. GEO presents a regionally differentiated analysis of the state of the world's environment and scenario-based outlooks into the future. It highlights global as well as region-specific concerns and makes recommendations for policy action. See www.unep.org/geo/geo3/.
The World Health Organization (WHO) created an index for comparing health system performance in 191 countries, in terms of both the overall level of goal achievement and the distribution of that achievement (Murray et al. 2001). Five indicators are included (level of health, health inequality, responsiveness, responsiveness inequality, and fairness of financial contribution). See www.who.int/health-systems-performance/docs/overall -framework_docs.htm.
Indicators on Transport and Environment Integration in the EU (TERM)
The Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism (TERM) (EEA 2002) was initially set up to develop a comprehensive set of indicators of the sustainability of transport in conjunction with the EEA. Annual publications are produced by the EEA (synthetic report) and Eurostat (statistics and indicators). The 2002 edition is the first to include the thirteen accessing countries. See reports.eea.europa.eu/environmental _ issue_report_2002_24/en
Indicators to Measure Decoupling of Environmental Pressure from Economic Growth
The report Indicators to Measure Decoupling of Environmental Pressure from Economic Growth (OECD 2002a) explores a set of thirty-one decoupling indicators covering a broad spectrum of environmental issues. Sixteen indicators relate to the decoupling of environmental pressures from total economic activity under the headings of climate change, air pollution, water quality, waste disposal, material use, and natural resources. The remaining fifteen indicators focus on production and use on four specific sectors: energy, transport, agriculture, and manufacturing. The term decouplingrefers to breaking the link between environmental "bads" and economic goods. Decoupling can be measured by decoupling indicators that have an environmental pressure variable as the numerator and an economic variable as the denominator. See www.oecd.org/ dataoecd/0/52/1933638.pdf.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Core Set of Indicators
The OECD Core Set (OECD 2001) helps track environmental performance and progress toward sustainable development. Key indicators drawn from the Core Set inform the public about key issues of common concern to OECD countries. Sectoral indicators help integrate environmental concerns into sectoral decisions (e.g., transport, agriculture). When developing environmental indicators, OECD countries have agreed to use the pressure, state, response (PSR) model as a common harmonized framework. They have identified indicators based on their policy relevance, analytical soundness, and measurability and have developed guidance on how to use and interpret the indicators. See www.oecd.org/home/.
The framework that was adopted to structure the work on sustainable consumption indicators resembles that of other OECD work on sectoral indicators. It is based on an adjusted pressure, state, response (PSR) model and distinguishes three themes: environmentally significant consumption trends and patterns (i.e., major driving forces and indirect pressures), interactions between consumption patterns and the environment (i.e., direct pressures on the environment and on natural resources and related impacts), and economic and policy aspects covering key policy and other societal responses (regulatory instruments, economic instruments, information and social instruments) (OECD 2002b). See www.oecd.org.
Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA) Indicators
The last version of SEEA has been undertaken under the joint responsibility of the United Nations, the European Commission, the International Monetary Fund, the
OECD, and the World Bank (World Bank et al. 2003). Much of the work was done by the London Group on Environmental and Natural Resource Accounting, through a review process that started in 1998. SEEA 2003 is an accounting framework that comprises four categories of accounts with relevant indicators: accounts of material and energy flows, accounts that are relevant to the good management of the environment (e.g., expenditures made by businesses, governments, and households to protect environment), accounts for environmental assets measured in physical and monetary terms (e.g., timber stock accounts showing opening and closing timber balances and the related changes over the course of an accounting period), and accounts that consider how the existing System of National Accounts might be adjusted to account for the impact of the economy on the environment. See unstats.un.org/unsd/env Accounting/seea.htm
In addition to the competitiveness indices, the Global Competitiveness Report published by the World Economic Forum comprises sets of indicators that include country performance indicators (e.g., gross domestic product [GDP] per capita and real growth in GDP), government and fiscal policy indicators (e.g., composition of public spending and government subsidies), institutional indicators (e.g., time with government bureaucracy and use of courts), infrastructure indicators (e.g., roads and cellular telephones), and human resource indicators (e.g., publicly funded schools and quality of health care) (World Economic Forum 2003).
Set of United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Indicators
Together with the highly aggregated Human Development Index, the regularly published Human Development Report (e.g., UNDP 2003) also features a set of predominantly social indicators, such as population with access to improved sanitation, undernourished people, public expenditures on education and health care, Internet users, and imports and exports of goods and services. All these indicators are arranged according to the level of human development as quantified by the Human Development Index. See http://hdr.undp.org/reports/.
At the Lisbon Special European Council in March 2000, the European Union set itself a strategic goal for the next decade: "to become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion." The European Commission was asked to draw up an annual progress report (the so-called Synthesis Report) based on an agreed set of structural indicators. These are by definition macro-level and performance-oriented indicators, focused on short-term development. The 2003 Synthesis Report presented forty-two indicators organized along five policy domains (employment, innovation, economic reform, social cohesion, and environment) and some general economic background indicators. See epp .eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page?_pageid=1133,47800773,1133_47802558&_dad =portal&_schema=PORTAL.
The list of indicators selected by the Balaton Group is different from most indicators lists. Of the thirty-three indicators, only one third are related to the UNCSD list. The indicator list uses the "Daily Triangle" as an integrating framework, creating a hierarchy from ultimate means (natural capital) to ultimate ends (well-being) and to relate nature health to human activity (technology, economy, politics, and ethics). The indicators are organized into four groups: indicators for natural capital, indicators for built capital, indicators for human and social capital, and indicators for ultimate ends (Meadows 1998). See www.nssd.net/pdf/Donella.pdf.
UNCSD Theme Indicator Framework and Specified Indicators
As part of the implementation of the Work Programme on Indicators of Sustainable Development adopted by the CSD at its Third Session in April 1995, a working list of 134 indicators and related methodology sheets were developed, improved, and tested at the national level by countries. Based on voluntary national testing and expert group consultation, a revised set of fifty-eight indicators and methodology sheets are now available for all countries to use (United Nations 2001).
World Development Indicators (WDI) is the World Bank's premier annual compilation of data about development. WDI 2003 includes approximately 800 indicators in eighty-seven tables, organized in six sections: "World View," "People," "Environment," "Economy," "States and Markets," and "Global Links." The tables cover 152 economies and fourteen country groups with basic indicators for a further fifty-five economies. See web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/DATASTATISTICS/ 0,,contentMDK:20523710~hlPK:1365919~menuPK:64133159~pagePK:64133150 ~piPK:64133175~theSitePK:239419,00.html
WRI's World Resources 2002—2004 comprises the latest core country data from more than 150 countries and new information on poverty, inequality, and food security. It includes indicators of potential risks to human health from environmental threats, social indicators of development, and basic economic indicators. World Resources is published every other year, and each publication has its own subfocus. The latest publication is subtitled Decision for the Earth: Balance, Voice, Power and focuses on good governance issues. See pubs.wri.org/pubs_description.cfm?PubID=3764.
The Joint Research Center in Ispra, Italy, developed the Dashboard of Sustainability as a free, noncommercial software application that allows one to present complex relationships between economic, social, and environmental issues in a highly communicative format aimed at decision makers and citizens interested in sustainable development. It is also particularly recommended to students, university lecturers, researchers, and indicator experts. For the WSSD, the Consultative Group on Sustainable Development Indicators (CGSDI) published the "From Rio to Jo'burg" Dashboard, with more than sixty indicators for more than 200 countries, an excellent tool for doing one's own 10-year assessment since the Rio Summit. See esl.jrc.it/dc/.
The Eurostat's material flow indicators are based on economy-wide material flow analysis, which quantifies physical exchange between the national economy, the environment, and foreign economies on the basis of total material mass flowing across the boundaries of the national economy. Material inputs into the economy consist primarily of extracted raw materials and produced biomass that has entered the economic system (e.g., biomass composed of harvested crops and wood). Material outputs consist primarily of emissions to air and water, landfilled wastes, and dissipative uses of materials (e.g., fertilizers, pesticides, and solvents). The most commonly used material flow indicators are usually divided into several groups: input, output, and consumption indicators (Eurostat 2001a).
Sets for National Level
Headline Indicators of Sustainable Development for the UK
The set developed by the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) comprises fifteen indicators that cover the three pillars of sustainable development: economic growth, social progress, and environmental protection. Assessments are made for each of the fifteen headline indicators on the basis of "Change Since 1970," "Change Since 1990," and "Change Since the Strategy." The "Change Since the Strategy" assessment highlights progress since the baseline assessment of indicators in "Quality of Life Counts" (DEFRA 1999), following the government's sustainable development strategy in 1999. The last assessment of headline indicators was published in the 2003 edition of Achieving a Better Quality of Life (DEFRA 2003).
National Sustainable Development Indicators for Finland
The main responsible body for national sustainable development indicators for Finland is the Ministry of the Environment. The indicators are arranged according to three dimensions of sustainable development: ecological, economic, and sociocultural. For these dimensions a set of issues was identified (e.g., climate change, acidification, natural resources, the workforce, lifestyles, and illnesses) and indicators for each issue developed. The whole set contains eighty-three indicators, with links between the indicators. There is no aggregation or weighting of indicators. See www.environment.fi/ default.asp?node=12282&lan=en.
This set was developed with the participation of the Ministry of the Environment, Statistics Sweden, and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. The indicators are arranged according to four major themes: efficiency, contribution and equality, adaptability, and values and resources for coming generations. Within these themes, the indicators encompass economic, environmental, and social dimensions. Links between indicators are indicated, and a cross-reference matrix has been developed. No aggregation or weighting of indicators is performed. See www.scb.se/templates/Product _21323.asp.
Indicators of Sustainable Development for the Netherlands
This set was developed by the government and government-related institutions (planning agencies). The indicators are organized along two axes: sociocultural (financial—economic and ecological—environmental) and time and geography (here and now, here and later, elsewhere, now and later). It focuses on themes important for future generations (later) and on the influence of exports, imports, and financial flows on other (especially developing) countries (elsewhere), here and now, here and later, now and later. See international.vrom.nl/pagina.html?id=7388.
Indicators of Sustainable Development of the Czech Republic
This set was developed during the testing phase of the UNPD project "Towards Sustainable Development in the Czech Republic: Building National Capacities" (Kovanda et al. 2002). It comprises sixty-three indicators divided into three categories (environmental, social, and economic). This set is used by the Czech Ministry of Environment as an underlying basis for the Internet portal on the indicators of sustainable development. See indikatory.env.cz/index.php?lang=en.
Environmental Performance Indicators for New Zealand
The Ministry for the Environment of New Zealand is developing a set of environmental indicators. The indicators in the Environmental Performance Indicators program measure and report the pressures being put on the environment, the current and historical state of the environment, and the effectiveness of any responses made to protect or repair the environment. It includes fourteen categories, such as air, climate, energy, and waste. See www.mfe.govt.nz/state/monitoring/epi/index.html.
Canada's National Environmental Indicator Series
This publication was prepared by the National Indicators and Reporting Office of Environment Canada. It is based on indicators presented in the National Environmental Indicator Series and is a follow-up to Tracking Key Environmental Issues, released in 2001. It is divided into four categories: ecological life support systems, human health and well-being, natural resources sustainability, and human activities. The Web portal also contains headline indicators related to the full set. See www.ec.gc.ca/soer-ree/ English/default.cfm.
Sets for Regional and Local Level
The European Common Indicators is a monitoring initiative focused on sustainability at the local level. Ten common local sustainability indicators were identified through a bottom-up process; these are now being tested. Used in combination with other indicators and other evaluation methods, the European Common Indicators can contribute to a comprehensive local or regional monitoring strategy.
Regional Versions of the UK National Headline Indicators of Sustainable Development
These are published regularly in the publication Regional Quality of Life Counts (e.g., DEFRA 2002), which contains regional information for the nine English Government Office Regions, where available, for the fifteen headline issues. The 2002 issue is the third edition of Regional Quality of Life Counts, the first was published in December 2000, and the second was published in June 2002. In some cases it has not been possible to reproduce the national indicator at a regional level, so proxy information has been included. It has not been possible to produce regional information for the headline indicator on housing conditions. However, for the first time, some regional information on carbon dioxide emissions for the climate change headline indicator is available.
Set of Urban Indicators, Habitat
Urban indicators are regularly collected in a sample of cities worldwide in order to report on progress in the twenty key areas of the Habitat Agenda at the city level. The Global Urban Indicators Database 2 contains policy-oriented indicators for more than 200 cities worldwide. Two different types of data are included in the minimum set. Key indicators, comprising indicators that are both important for policy and easy to collect, are either numbers, percentages, or ratios. Qualitative data or checklists, which assess areas that cannot easily be measured quantitatively, are audit questions generally accompanied by checkboxes for "yes" or "no" answers. See www.unhabitat.org/pmss /getPage.asp?page=bookView&book=1535.
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