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1. HANPP is related to biomass extraction but not identical. In perennial plant associations such as forests, the ratio of extraction can exceed NPP (e.g., deforestation) and eventually result in a permanent reduction of the biomass stock of vegetation. This can be taken into account separately. Plant residues plowed into the soil were regarded as appropriated in the calculations presented in this study because the data we present here were limited to the aboveground compartment for reasons of data availability. Biomass returned on-site (e.g., feces dropped by grazing animals) was also accounted for as appropriated. We are aware that some applications of the HANPP concept might treat these flows differently.

2. Irrigation of arid land or intensive agricultural use (application of large amounts of fertilizers) may raise NPPact to levels above those of NPPQ. On intensively used agricultural land in humid climates, HANPP is mostly still positive because of the high amounts of biomass harvested. In the case of arid land, however, natural productivity may be extremely low. If such land is irrigated, this may raise NPP sufficiently to result in negative HANPP values, even in the case of high harvest levels.

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