Notes

Miracle Farm Blueprint

Organic Farming Manual

Get Instant Access

1. HANPP is related to biomass extraction but not identical. In perennial plant associations such as forests, the ratio of extraction can exceed NPP (e.g., deforestation) and eventually result in a permanent reduction of the biomass stock of vegetation. This can be taken into account separately. Plant residues plowed into the soil were regarded as appropriated in the calculations presented in this study because the data we present here were limited to the aboveground compartment for reasons of data availability. Biomass returned on-site (e.g., feces dropped by grazing animals) was also accounted for as appropriated. We are aware that some applications of the HANPP concept might treat these flows differently.

2. Irrigation of arid land or intensive agricultural use (application of large amounts of fertilizers) may raise NPPact to levels above those of NPPQ. On intensively used agricultural land in humid climates, HANPP is mostly still positive because of the high amounts of biomass harvested. In the case of arid land, however, natural productivity may be extremely low. If such land is irrigated, this may raise NPP sufficiently to result in negative HANPP values, even in the case of high harvest levels.

Literature Cited

Brown, J. H. 1981. Two decades of hommage to Santa Rosalia: Toward a general theory of diversity. American Zoologist 21:877—888. Brown, J. H. 1995. Macroecology. Chicago: Chicago University Press. Costanza, R., J. Cumberland, H. E. Daly, R. Goodland, and R. Norgaard. 1998. An introduction to ecological economics. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Currie, D. J., and V. Paquin. 1987. Large-scale biogeographical patterns of species richness in trees. Nature 329:326-327. Davidson, C. 2000. Economic growth and the environment: Alternatives to the limits paradigm. BioScience 50:433-440. Duchin, F. 1998. Structural economics. Measuring change in technology, lifestyles, and the environment. The United Nations University. Washington, DC: Island Press. Dvorak, M., A. Ranner, and H.-M. Ber. 1993. Atlas der Brutvögel Österreichs. Ergebnisse der Brutvogelkartierung 1981—1985 der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Vogelkunde. Vienna: Federal Environment Agency. EEA. 2003. Europe's environment: The third assessment. Environmental assessment report no. 10. Copenhagen: European Environment Agency. Erb, K.-H. 2004. Land use-related changes in aboveground carbon stocks of Austria's terrestrial ecosystems. Ecosystems 7:563-572. Eurostat. 1999. Towards environmental pressure indicators for the EU. Luxembourg:

Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. Fischer-Kowalski, M., and H. Haberl. 1997. Tons, joules, and money: Modes of production and their sustainability problems. Society and Natural Resources 10:61-85. Folke, C., C. S. Holling, and C. Perrings. 1996. Biological diversity, ecosystems, and the human scale. Ecological Applications 6:1018-1024. Gaston, K. L. 2000. Global patterns in biodiversity. Nature 405:220-227. Gaston, K. L., and T. M. Blackburn. 2000. Pattern and process in macroecology. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

Groombridge, B. 1992. Global biodiversity, status of the earth's living resources. London:

World Conservation Monitoring Centre and Chapman & Hall. Haberl, H. 1997. Human appropriation of net primary production as an environmental indicator: Implications for sustainable development. Ambio 26:143-146. Haberl, H. 2001. The energetic metabolism of societies, Part II: Empirical examples. Journal of Industrial Ecology 5(2):71-88.

Haberl, H., and F. Krausmann. 2001. Changes in population, affluence and environmental pressures during industrialization. The case ofAustria 1830—1995. Population and Environment 23:49—69.

Haberl, H., K.-H. Erb, F. Krausmann, W. Loibl, N. Schulz, and H. Weisz. 2001. Changes in ecosystem processes induced by land use: Human appropriation of net primary production and its influence on standing crop in Austria. Global Biogeo-chemical Cycles 15:929-942.

Haberl, H., N. Schulz, C. Plutzar, K.-H. Erb, F. Krausmann, W. Loibl, D. Moser, N. Sauberer, H. Weisz, H. G. Zechmeister, and P. Zulka. 2004a. Human appropriation of net primary production and species diversity in agricultural landscapes. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 102:213-218.

Haberl, H., M. Wackernagel, F. Krausmann, K.-H. Erb, and C. Monfreda. 2004b. Ecological footprints and human appropriation of net primary production: A comparison. Land Use Policy 21:279-288.

Haberl, H., C. Plutzar, K.-H. Erb, V. Gaube, M. Pollheimer, and N. B. Schulz. 2005. Human appropriation of net primary production and avifauna diversity in Austria. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 110(3-4):119—131.

Harmon, M. E., J. F. Franklin, F. J. Swanson, P. Sollins, S. V. Gregory, J. D. Lattin, N. H. Anderson, S. P. Cline, N. G. Aumen, J. R. Sedell, G. W. Lienkaemper, K. Cro-mack, and K. W. Cummins. 1986. Ecology of coarse woody debris in temperate ecosystems. Advances in Ecological Research 15:133-302.

Heywood, V. H., I. Baste, K. A. Gardner, K. Hindar, B. Jonsson, and P. Schei. 1995. Introduction. Pp. 5-19 in Global biodiversity assessment, edited by V. H. Heywood and R. T. Watson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press and UNEP.

Hubbell, S. P. 2001. The unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Hutchinson, G. E. 1959. Hommage to Santa Rosalia, or why are there so many kinds of animals? American Naturalist 93:145-159.

Jalas, J. 1955. Hemerobe und hemerochore Pflanzenarten. Ein terminologischer Reformversuch. Acta Fauna Flora Fennica 72(11):1—15.

Kay, J. J., H. A. Regier, M. Boyle, and G. Francis. 1999. An ecosystem approach for sus-tainability: Addressing the challenge of complexity. Futures 31:721-742.

Krausmann, F. 2001. Land use and industrial modernization, an empirical analysis of human influence on the functioning of ecosystems in Austria 1830-1995. Land Use Policy 18:17-26.

Krausmann, F., and H. Haberl. 2002. The process of industrialization from the perspective of energetic metabolism: Socioeconomic energy flows in Austria 1830-1995. Ecological Economics 41:177-201.

Krausmann, F., H. Haberl, N. Schulz, K.-H. Erb, E. Darge, and V. Gaube. 2003. Land-use change and socioeconomic metabolism in Austria, Part I: Driving forces of land-use change 1950-1995. Land Use Policy 20:1-20.

Lennon, J. J., J. J. D. Greenwood, and J. R. G. Turner. 2000. Bird diversity and environmental gradients in Britain: A test of the species—energy hypothesis. Journal of Animal Ecology 69:581-598.

Levin, S. A., and R. T. Paine. 1974. Disturbance, patch formation, and community structure. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 71:2744-2747.

Lindemann, R. L. 1942. The trophic-dynamic aspect of ecology. Ecology 23:399-418.

MacArthur, R. H., and J. MacArthur. 1961. On bird species diversity. Ecology 42:594-598.

Magurran, A. 1988. Ecological diversity and its measurement. London: Chapman & Hall.

Martinez-Alier, J. 1998. Ecological economics as human ecology. Madrid: Fundación César Manrique.

McDonnell, M. J., and S. T. A. Pickett. 1997. Humans as components of ecosystems: The ecology of subtle human effects and populated areas. New York: Springer.

McNeely, J. A., M. Gadgil, C. Leveque, C. Padoch, and K. Redford. 1995. Human influences on biodiversity. Pp. 711-821 in Global biodiversity assessment, edited by V. H. Heywood and R. T. Watson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press and UNEP.

Meadows, D., D. Meadows, and J. Randers. 1992. Beyond the limits: Global collapse or a sustainable future. London: Earthscan.

Miller, K., M. H. Allegretti, N. Johnson, B. Jonsson, R. Hobbs, E. Lleras, M. Wells, and C. de Klemm. 1995. Measures for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of its components. Pp. 915-1061 in Global biodiversity assessment, edited by V. H. Heywood and R. T. Watson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press and UNEP.

Moser, D., H. G. Zechmeister, C. Plutzar, N. Sauberer, T. Wrbka, and G. Grabherr. 2002. Landscape shape complexity as an effective measure for plant species richness in rural landscapes. Landscape Ecology 17:657-669.

Munasinghe, M., and W. Shearer. 1995. An introduction to the definition and measurement of biogeophysical sustainability. Pp. xvii-xxxiii in Defining and measuring sustainability: The biogeophysical foundations, edited by M. Munashinghe and W. Shearer. Washington, DC: United Nations University and The World Bank.

Odum, E. P. 1971. Fundamentals of ecology. Philadelphia: Saunders.

O'Neill, R. V., J. R. Krummel, R. H. Gardner, G. Sugihara, B. Jackson, D. L. DeAn-gelis, B. T. Milne, M. G. Turner, B. Zygmunt, S. W. Christensen, V. H. Dale, and R. L. Graham. 1988. Indices of landscape patterns. Landscape Ecology 1:153-162.

Pimentel, D., W. Dazhong, and M. Giampietro. 1990. Technological changes in energy use in U.S. agricultural production. Pp. 305-321 in Agroecology: Researching the ecological basis for sustainable agriculture, edited by S. R. Gliessmann. New York: Springer.

Postel, S. L., G. C. Daily, and P. R. Ehrlich. 1996. Human appropriation of renewable fresh water. Science 271:785-788.

Rapson, G. L., K. Thompson, and J. G. Hodgson. 1997. The humped relationship between species richness and biomass: Testing its sensitivity to sample quadrat size. Journal of Ecology 85:99-100.

Rojstaczer, S., S. M. Sterling, and N. Moore. 2001. Human appropriation of photosynthesis products. Science 294:2549-2552.

Rosenzweig, M. L., and Z. Abramsky. 1993. How are diversity and productivity related? Pp. 52-65 in Species diversity on ecological communities, edited by R. E. Rick-lefs and D. Schluter. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Sagoff, M. 1995. Carrying capacity and ecological economics. BioScience 45:610-620.

Sauberer, N., K. P. Zulka, M. Abensberg-Traun, H.-M. Berg, G. Bieringer, N. Mila-sowsky, D. Moser, C. Plutzar, M. Pollheimer, C. Storch, R. Tröstl, H. G. Zechmeister, and G. Grabherr. 2004. Surrogate taxa for biodiversity in agricultural landscapes of eastern Austria. Biological Conservation 117:181-190.

Sitch, S., B. Smith, I. C. Prentice, A. Arneth, A. Bondeau, W. Cramer, J. O. Kaplan, S. Levis, W. Lucht, M. T. Sykes, K. Thonicke, and S. Venevsky. 2003. Evaluation of ecosystem dynamics, plant geography and terrestrial carbon cycling in the LPJ dynamic global vegetation model. Global Change Biology 9:161-185.

Tüxen, R. 1956. Die heutige potentielle natürliche Vegetation als Gegenstand der Veg-etationskartierung. Angewandte Pflanzensoziologie 13:5-42.

Vitousek, P. M., and J. Lubchenko. 1995. Limits to sustainable use of resources: From local effects to global change. Pp. 57-64 in Defining and measuringsustainability: The biogeophysical foundations, edited by M. Munashinghe and W. Shearer. Washington, DC: United Nations University and The World Bank.

Vitousek, P. M., P. R. Ehrlich, A. H. Ehrlich, and P. A. Matson. 1986. Human appropriation of the products of photosynthesis. BioScience 36:368-373.

Vitousek, P. M., H. A. Mooney, J. Lubchenko, and J. M. Melillo. 1997. Human domination of Earth's ecosystems. Science 277:494-499.

Wackernagel, M., N. B. Schulz, D. Deumling, A. C. Linares, M. Jenkins, V. Kapos, C. Monfreda, J. Loh, N. Myers, R. Norgaard, and J. Randers. 2002. Tracking the ecological overshoot of the human economy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99:9266-9271.

Waide, R. B., M. R. Willig, C. F. Steiner, G. Mittelbach, L. Gough, S. I. Dodson, G. P. Juday, and R. Parmenter. 1999. The relationship between productivity and species richness. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30:257-300.

Weiher, E. 1999. The combined effects of scale and productivity on species richness. Journal of Ecology 87:1005-1011.

Weterings, R. A. P. M., and J. B. Opschoor. 1992. The ecocapacity as a challenge to technological development. Rijswijk, the Netherlands: Advisory Council for Research on Nature and Environment.

Whittaker, R. H. 1960. Vegetation of the Siskiyou mountains, Oregon and California. Ecological Monographs 30:277-332.

Whittaker, R. H., and G. E. Likens. 1973. Primary production: The biosphere and man. Human Ecology 1:357—369.

Wrbka, T., K.-H. Erb, N. B. Schulz, J. Peterseil, C. Hahn, and H. Haberl. 2004. Linking pattern and processes in cultural landscapes. An empirical study based on spatially explicit indicators. Land Use Policy 21:289-306.

Wright, D. H. 1983. Species—energy theory, an extension of species-area theory. Oikos 41:495-506.

Wright, D. H. 1987. Estimating human effects on global extinction. International Journal of Biometeorology 31:293—299.

Wright, D. H. 1990. Human impacts on the energy flow through natural ecosystems, and implications for species endangerment. Ambio 19:189—194.

Wright, D. H., D. J. Currie, and B. A. Maurer. 1993. Energy supply and patterns of species richness on local and regional scales. Pp. 66—76 in Species diversity in ecological communities, edited by R. E. Ricklefs and D. Schluter. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Zechmeister, H. G., and D. Moser. 2001. The influence of agricultural land-use intensity on bryophyte species richness. Biodiversity and Conservation 10:1609—1625.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Whole Health

Whole Health

Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success At Better Total Health. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To An Introduction To Your Overall Health For You And Your Loved Ones.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment