1. Population growth becomes relevant when demand for certain environmentally relevant goods or services become saturated at high levels of per capita income.

2. The term decoupling is not used when the environmental pressure variable increases at a higher rate than the economic driving force (a case of "supercoupling").

3. In the literature, the terms strong and weak are sometimes used as synonyms for absolute and relative, respectively.

4. Information about the intensity of resource use can be presented only on the basis of discrete stocks of particular fish species. But where fish stocks are exploited by foreign fishing fleets, it becomes difficult to link such information to country-based decoupling indicators.

5. Note that the decoupling factor generally will not change linearly, even if both environmental pressure and driving force do.

6. Such targets (sometimes called dynamic) were used in voluntary agreements on CO2 emission reductions in Germany.

7. Differences of scale are another reason why country-based decoupling indicators are not well suited to take account of ecosystem constraints. Neither environmental pressure nor ecological carrying capacity is evenly distributed across a country's surface area, and local ecosystem collapses are likely to occur long before nationally averaged pressures approach critical values.

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