The previous sections have amply demonstrated how many aspects of indicators involve normative choices or are biased by data availability. This raises questions about how indicators are developed, who is involved, and whose normative choices they reflect. Are indicators developed in one environmental, socioeconomic, and cultural setting valid in other settings? Can at least some indicators be universally applicable? The conceptual challenges raised by these types of questions require diligent efforts to make implicit value assumptions explicit and hidden biases visible.
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