1 This chapter is based on work undertaken for the UNFCCC Expert Group on Technology Transfer (EGTT) supporting the post-2012 negotiations and the Bali (COP 13) mandate, and reflects contributions from many other researchers and organizations with an interest in a successful post-2012 negotiation under the UNFCCC in terms of financing the convention and the technology development, deployment, diffusion and transfer challenges posed by climate change. The views expressed are those of the author and should not be attributed to those of the UNFCCC, Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) or the EGTT. This work has been undertaken jointly with Dr Heleen de Coninck and Erik Haites. I am also grateful for the contributions and advice from Xander van Tilburg, Eric Massey, Laurens Bouwer, Zhu Liucai, Balawant Joshi, Jose Alberto Garibaldi, Stefan Bakker, Ester Basri, Silvia de Vaan, Dolf Gielen, Michael Taylor, Raouf Saidi, Jos Sijm, Eric Usher, Joost van Putten, David Vincent, Florin Vladu, Xiaohua Zhang, Morgan Bazilian and other members of the EGTT.

2 The Bali Action Plan envisaged a Copenhagen Agreement with:

• measurable, reportable and verifiable nationally appropriate mitigation commitments or actions, including quantified emission limitation and reduction objectives, by all developed country parties, while ensuring the comparability of efforts among them, taking into account differences in their national circumstances; and

• nationally appropriate mitigation actions by developing country parties in the context of sustainable development, supported and enabled by technology, financing and capacity-building, in a measurable, reportable and verifiable manner.

3 The terms leveraging and mobilization are used interchangeably within this chapter as they are within the literature and within the international climate change negotiations. The leveraging ratios used in this chapter are expressed mathematically as x:y, where x is the amount of public-sector investment, and y is the amount of private-sector finance that is a direct consequence of the public investment (see Higham, 2009).

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