List of Acronyms Abbreviations and Other Special Terms


Annex II

Annex B









Administrative Committee on Coordination (UN Secretary General's Cabinet) Asian Development Bank

Africa, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China Sea African Ministers Conference on Environment Arab Maghreb Union the 40 countries plus the European Economic Community listed in Annex I of the UNFCCC that agreed to try to limit their GHG emissions (developed countries)

the countries listed in Annex II to the UNFCCC that have a special obligation to provide financial resources and facilitate technology transfer to developing countries (Annex II parties include the 24 original OECD members plus the EU) list in the Kyoto Protocol of 38 countries plus the European Community that agreed to QELRCs (emission targets), along with the QELRCs they accepted (the list is nearly identical to the Annex I parties listed in the convention except that it does not include Belarus or Turkey)

Alliance of Small Island States (42 members and 4 observers: American Samoa, Guam, Netherlands Antilles and the US Virgin Islands)

Ad hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol Business Alliance for Sustainable Development business as usual

Prince of Wales's Business and Environment Programme bankable investment project profile

Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment


British Telecom biomass to liquid the bureau of a commission is composed of the chair and representatives of the other five regional groupings of member states












degrees Celsius a grouping of key cities around the world to tackle climate change

Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme calcium carbonate

California Environmental Protection Agency Climate Action Network

Caribbean Community and Common Market countries (Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada,

Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint

Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago)

Convention on Biological Diversity

Confederation of British Industry

Cities in Climate Change Initiative

Convention to Combat Desertification

Confederación Sindical de Comisiones Obreras carbon capture and storage

Clean Development Mechanism

Clean Development Mechanism Executive Board

Carbon Disclosure Project chief of defence staff

United Nations Chief Executives Board

Central and Eastern Europe

Clean Energy Investment Framework chief executive officer certified emission reduction chlorofluorocarbon

Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research Confederación General del Trabajo the chair is responsible for facilitating progress in the work of the meeting; in a commission they serve from the end of the previous session until the end of the one that they are chairing (different chairs may be elected for other informal groups)

combined heat and power

Climate Investment Fund

Canadian Labour Congress

Corporate Leaders Group on Climate Change

Center for a New American Security compressed natural gas carbon dioxide carbon dioxide equivalent

Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa Conference of the Parties (to a convention) Corporate Responsibility Coalition Carbon Partnership Facility

University of Cambridge Programme for Sustainability Leadership

CSD United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (53 member state governments make up the commission, which meets annually; observer states and non-members, such as the EU, are also permitted to attend)

CSO civil society organization

CTF Clean Technology Fund

CTL coal to liquid

DCDC Development Concepts and Doctrine Centre

Defra UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs

DFID UK Department for International Development

DRI Disaster Risk Index

DTI UK Department of Trade and Industry

DTIE United Nations Division of Technology, Industry and Economics

EBRD European Bank for Reconstruction and Development

EC European Commission

ECA United Nations Economic Commission for Africa

ECE United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

ECN Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands

ECOSOC United Nations Economic and Social Council

ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States

EEPS Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard

EEZ exclusive economic zone

EGTT Expert Group on Technology Transfer (of the UNFCCC)

EIR Extractive Industries Review

EIT economy in transition (predominately refers to countries in Central and Eastern Europe)

ENB Earth Negotiations Bulletin

EPA US Environmental Protection Agency

EPOC Environmental Policy Committee (of the OECD)

ERA Environmental Rights Action (Nigeria)

EREC European Renewable Energy Council

EST environmentally sound technology

ETF-IW Environmental Transformation Fund - International Window

ETS Emissions Trading Scheme

ETUC European Trade Union Confederation

EU European Union (works as a group at international meetings, in addition to the actions of the European member states present; presidency rotates every six months)

FAO United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization

FCPF Forest Carbon Partnership Facility

FDI foreign direct investment

FIELD Foundation for Environmental Law and Development

FoEME Friends of the Earth Middle East

FPSO floating production storage and offloading

FRGS Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society

FRSA Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts


G77 and China




GWh ha

high-level segment





Forest Stewardship Council gram

Group of Five (Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa)

Group of Eight developing countries of the Northern Hemisphere consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the UK and the US

the Group of 77 and China was the original group of the so-called non-aligned states; it is, in effect, the negotiating bloc of the member countries present and seeks to harmonize the negotiating positions of its 133 developing country members

Global Climate Change Alliance gross domestic product

Global Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fund Global Environment Facility (the World Bank, UNDP and UNEP established the multi-billion dollar GEF in 1990 to fund environmental programmes, especially in the South and in EITs)

Global Environmental Outlook 4 greenhouse gas gross national income gross national product

Group of Latin America and Caribbean Countries (regional country grouping used within the UN) gigatonne gigatonnes of carbon gigawatt hours hectare

Human Development Index Human Development Report ministerial-level part of the meeting where the most significant issues are decided

High-Level Committee on Programmes (within the CEB)

Host Communities Network heating, ventilating and air conditioning

International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge,

Science and Technology

International Atomic Energy Agency

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

International Federation of Chemical, Energy, Mine and

General Workers' Unions

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

International Confederation of Free Trade Unions International Development Association

IDB Inter-American Development Bank

IEA International Energy Agency

IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development

IFC International Finance Corporation

IFI international financial institution

IGAD Intergovernmental Authority on Development

IIRSA Infrastructure Integration for the Region of South America initiative

IISD RS International Institute for Sustainable Development Reporting Services

ILO International Labour Organization

IMF International Metalworkers Federation

IMF International Monetary Fund intersessional official between-sessions meeting of one of the commissions

IOM International Organization for Migration

IOU investor-owned utility

IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IRR internal rate of return

ISTAS Instituto Sindical de Trabajo, Ambiente y Salud

ITUC International Trade Union Confederation

JI joint implementation

JISC Joint Implementation Supervisory Committee

JSE Johannesburg Stock Exchange

JTF joint task force km kilometre kW kilowatts kWh kilowatt hours

LCFS Low Carbon Fuel Standard

LDC least developed country (49 countries)

LDCF Least Developed Country Fund

LED light-emitting diode

LIEE Low-Income Energy Efficiency programme

LSE London School of Economics

LTMS long-term mitigation scenario m metre

M&S Marks & Spencer major groups term used in Agenda 21 to describe nine sectors of society fundamental to achieving sustainable development (women; children and youth; indigenous people; NGOs; local authorities; workers and trade unions; business and industry; scientific and technological communities; farmers)

MDB multilateral development bank

MDG Millennium Development Goal

MEA United Nations Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

MEA Multilateral Environmental Agreement member state nation that is a member of the United Nations mm millimetre

MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MoD Ministry of Defence

MOP Meeting of the Parties

MOU memorandum of understanding

MRV measurable, reportable and verifiable

MW megawatt

NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement

NAMA nationally appropriate mitigation action

NAPA National Adaptation Programme of Action

NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NAST National Assessment Synthesis Team

NEA Nuclear Energy Agency nef New Economics Foundation

NGO non-governmental organization

NHS UK National Health Service

NMTIP national medium-term investment programme

NORAD North American Aerospace Defense Command

North current popular term to describe developed industrialized countries.

NRG4SD Network of Regions for Sustainable Development

NWF National Wildlife Federation

NWMO Nuclear Waste Management Organization

ODA official/overseas development assistance

ODA Overseas Development Agency

OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OES Bureau of Oceans, International Environment and Scientific Affairs

ONA Office of Net Assessment

OPEC Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries

OPIC Overseas Private Investment Corporation

PA Palestinian Authority

PANPP Pan-African Non-Petroleum Producers Association

PFAN Private Financing Advisory Network ppm parts per million

PPP public-private partnership

PR public relations

PSI Public Services International

PWA Palestinian Water Authority

QELRC Quantified Emission Limitation and Reduction Commitment

QELRO Quantified Emission Limitation and Reduction Objective

R&D research and development

REDD reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries regional groups five regional groups meet privately to discuss issues and nominate bureau members and other officials; the regional groups are Africa; Asia; Central and Eastern Europe (CEE);

Group of Latin America and Caribbean Countries (GRULAC); and the Western Europe and Others Group (WEOG) RGGI Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative RSB Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels

RSPO Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil RTRS Roundtable on Responsible Soy

RUSI Royal United Services Institute for Defense and Security Studies SADC Southern African Development Community SBI Subsidiary Body for Implementation

SBSTTA Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice

SCCF Special Climate Change Fund SCF Strategic Climate Fund

SECCI Sustainable Energy and Climate Change Initiative

SF Stakeholder Forum for a Sustainable Future

SIDS small island developing states (especially important in relation to the Barbados Plan of Action for SIDS) SIPRI Stockholm International Peace Research Institute SIWI Stockholm International Water Institute South current popular term to describe developing countries SRI socially responsible investment

SUD-Net Sustainable Urban Development Network SUV sports utility vehicle

TJM Trade Justice Movement

TUAC Trade Union Advisory Committee (to the OECD) UEMOA Union Economique et Monétaire Ouest Africaine UGT Unión General de Trabajadores UK United Kingdom

UN United Nations

UNCED United Nations Conference on Environment and Development UNCLOS United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNDESA United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (deals with many of the commissions that review implementation of the outcomes from UN summits and conferences) UNDP United Nations Development Programme

UNDSD United Nations Division for Sustainable Development (division of UNDESA, concerned with sustainable development issues; acts as the secretariat for the CSD) UNEP United Nations Environment Programme

UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNF United Nations Foundation

UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change UNGA United Nations General Assembly

UNGASS United Nations General Assembly Special Session (usually refers to the 19th Session that was the five-year review of UNCED)

UN-Habitat United Nations Human Settlements Programme (formerly

UNCHS (Habitat)) UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund

UNU United Nations University

US United States

USAID US Agency for International Development

USWA United Steel Workers Association (US)

VC venture capital

WBCSD World Business Council for Sustainable Development

WBGU German Advisory Council on Global Change

(Wissenschaftlicher Beirat der Bundesregierung Globale Umweltveränderungen) WCED World Commission on Environment and Development

WCI Western Climate Initiative

WEDO Water and Environmental Development Organization

WEF Water Environment Federation

WEOG Western Europe and Others Group (regional country grouping within the UN; includes the US and Canada) WFP World Food Programme

WHO World Health Organization

WMO World Meteorological Organization working group sub-group of the main meeting, tasked with drafting language for the final documents WSSCC Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council

WSSD World Summit on Sustainable Development

WTO World Trade Organization

WWF World Wide Fund for Nature (formerly the World Wildlife


Part I

Energy Insecurity: Challenges to Future Energy Stability

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