2.1 Decoupling growth, energy consumption and emissions in Germany 12

2.2 Sector-wide reduction in carbon 13 7.1 Risks from climate change: Comparison of estimates of risks for each reason of concern as assessed by the IPCC in 2001 and a revised assessment by Smith et al (2009) 67

9.1 Possible paths for the stabilization of greenhouse gases (GHGs) 84

13.1 Potential impacts of 0.5m and 1m sea-level rise in the Nile Delta 122

24.1 The innovation process 249

24.2 Stages of technological maturity and barriers 250

24.3 Experience curve of technology innovation 251

24.4 Leveraging potential of public policy and financing options for climate change 255

24.5 Characteristics of the major types of finance 259

24.6 Financing vehicles by stage of technological maturity 260

24.7 A potential model for an enhanced technology financing mechanism under the convention 265


7.1 Tipping elements ranked according to likelihood 66

9.1 Probabilities of exceeding a temperature increase at equilibrium

(percentage) 82

24.1 Specific financing barriers related to stage of technological maturity 252

24.2 Estimates of additional financing needed for the development of mitigation technologies (US$ billion per year) 254

24.3 Three leveraging ratio scenarios for public and private investment shares 256

24.4 Implications of restricted public funding for leveraging ratios if total investment continues to meet IEA (2008b)

estimates of additional financing needs for technology to 2050 258

24.5 Options for enhancing convention finance for technology 263

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