Biodiesel and bioethanol

Ambitious biofuels targets have been agreed in major automobile markets. In the US, a goal of 35 billion gallons of biofuels, replacing approximately one fifth of oil-based transport fuels, is proposed by 2017. Current production is just 4.2 billion gallons. The European Union (EU) Biofuels Directive demands that 5.75 per cent of European fuel comes from biomass by 2010, increasing to 10 per cent by 2020. Even more ambitious targets are being discussed (Doornbosch and Steenblik, 2007)....

Global water use trends Ever increasing

Water is fundamental for all kinds of development. Human development and well-being, industrial and economic development, energy production and agriculture all rely on the availability of (often abundant) water resources. However, there are distinct differences between sectors of society, their relationship to water and the future implications that changes in availability may have. The 20th century witnessed a sixfold increase in human water use, while the population increased 'only' threefold...

Reference By Mata 1992 On Agricultural Development

Ban Ki Moon (2008) World Economic Forum www.un.org apps news story.aspPNews ID 25398& Cr davos& Cr1 Baresel, C. and G. Destouni (2005) 'Novel quantification of coupled natural and cross sectoral water and nutrient pollutant flows for environmental management', Environmental Science and Technology, vol 39, pp6182-6190 CSD (Commission on Sustainable Development) (1994) Report of the Commission on Sustainable Development on Its Second Session, 16-27 May 1994, E CN.17 1994 20, New York, NY...

Climate Change and Biodiversity Loss The Great New Threats to Peace Security and Development

Since the Industrial Revolution, humanity has entered an era of global changes that is transforming the face of the Earth. The effects of that revolution will ripple down for centuries. Rising living standards are taking their toll on the natural resource base that underpins them. As a result, humanity's footprint on the environment has never been as significant as it is now. The pressures on the planet's natural functions caused by human activity have reached such levels that ecosystems'...

Policy options for financing climate change technologies

Financing options for climate change technologies vary according to specific technology and country circumstances. Different financial vehicles target technologies in each stage of technological maturity. Typically, a complex mix of types of finance and financial instruments must be used simultaneously. It is important to tailor financing policy options to closely match the types of finance and financing instruments needed. There are many different types of financing that can be applied to a...