Experiment design

A core vortex is specified initially, which has a hurricane-like tangential wind profile (see Fig. 2) defined as follows where the maximum tangential wind Vmax 0.5(25m s), and the radius of maximum wind Rmax 0.1(100km). The vorticity of the core vortex has a maximum at the center of the vortex (as seen in Fig. 1(c)) and decreases Fig. 2. Radial profiles of the hurricane-like vortex for nondimensional (a) tangential wind, (b) angular velocity, (c) vorticity, and (d) vorticity gradient. To obtain...

Variation of crystal habit with seeding temperature in case of DMSO

The overall variation of crystal habit with a change of seeding temperature is presented in Table 1. The observation is consistent with the fact that the principal factor governing the basic habit of ice crystal structure is temperature.28 Rogers and You29 have also concluded that the basic habits Table 1. Crystal habits when DMSO is seeded. Temperature Crystal habit 22 C to 17 C Dominantly dendrite (Photo 1), some are hexagonal and cubic Dendrite (80.54 ) 9.12-45.56jm Hexagonal (10.16 )...

Identification of coating of Ammonium Sulfate dust with DMSO by NMR

In order to confirm that the dust particles of Ammonium Sulfate are really coated with DMSO, the coated crystals were subjected to 1H-NMR study in D2O solvent. In the NMR spectrum (Fig. 3), we observe a sharp peak at S 5 4 ppm 3 2 1 0 Fig. 3. NMR spectrum of DMSO-coated Ammonium Sulfate crystals. S 5 4 ppm 3 2 1 0 Fig. 3. NMR spectrum of DMSO-coated Ammonium Sulfate crystals. 6 4.683, because of the presence of H2O as an impurity along with D2O. The other peak at 6 2.60 is due to DMSO. This...

Base case model evaluation

The model evaluation for the base case model run was undertaken using USEPA1 statistical criteria. It was found that all the performance metrics were within the limits set by the EPA performance criteria. Further details of model evaluation and validation can be obtained from the model evaluation report by ENVIRON.16 The model does underpredict ozone concentrations at an observational site in the coastal region of Corpus Christi but on the days of highest ozone concentrations it performs...

Rainfall and temperature in China

Based on the corresponding Chinese climates for the four types of Fig. 2, we can easily find the influences of all SSTA patterns on climate are quite different. Because of long duration of SSTA, our results can provide some base for Chinese summer climate prediction. Because of the finite time length of observation data, the cases for composite analyzing are slightly small. However they, to a certain extent, explain the considerable effects of SSTA patterns on East China rainfall. Figure 3...

Relationship between BGA and clouds

The frequency distribution for the probability of occurrence for BR higher than 6 is shown in Fig. 7. From these three-year cases, we found that most cases (BR > 6) occurred when RH was higher than 60 -70 . This can be one of the causative reasons that would lead to the growth of the aerosol particles by condensation, thus changing their optical properties. This result is similar to that of Hanel3 and Fitzerald et al.11 The correlation of maximum extinction coefficient and maximum DR of cloud...

Lidar System Configuration

A Mie-Rayleigh-Sodium fluorescence lidar has been assembled, tested and deployed to the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) at Hefei, China in December 2005. The transmitter consists of a Nd-YAG laser at 532 nm and a Dye laser at 589 nm. The receiver is a 1 m diameter telescope. Parameters in detail are given in Table 1. The system has three channels which are used for different atmospheric parameters detecting, namely, sodium density, atmospheric density and temperature and...

Variation of crystal count and dimension with seeding temperature in case of DMSO

Crystal Seeding

The variation of crystal count with seeding temperature is represented in Fig. 2. At each value of seeding temperature, the seeding was done four times, the range of which was at best within 0.4 C. The seeding temperature presented in the figure was actually the mean of the four temperature values. There were two slides, and in each slide, 10 random observations were made by the microscope. The modal value of the dimension of all crystals measured in 80 fields of view of the microscope at a...

World Scientific

NEW JERSEY LONDON SINGAPORE BEIJING SHANGHAI HONG KONG TAIPEI CHENNAI World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. 5 Toh Tuck Link, Singapore 596224 USA office 27 Warren Street, Suite 401-402, Hackensack, NJ 07601 UK office 57 Shelton Street, Covent Garden, London WC2H 9HE British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. ADVANCES IN GEOSCIENCES A 6-Volume Set Copyright 2009 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. All...

Background aerosol and cloud definitions

In order to understand the optical properties of cloud in the height region of 0.7-3 km, we need to distinguish the differences between the clouds and aerosols. We defined the background aerosols (BGA) based on their scattering properties which follows two criteria (i) the backscattering coefficient should be smaller than five times that scattered by air molecules and (ii) the DR of aerosols should be smaller than the value of 0.1 at the aerosol layer (Fig. 2). BGA normally consists of...

Tropical Pacific Indian Ocean Temperature Anomaly Mode

El Ni o and La Ni a are defined by the SSTA in the equatorial eastern Pacific. Actually, when there is the positive (negative) SSTA in the eastern equatorial Pacific, the negative (positive) SSTA in the western equatorial Pacific occurs. On the other hand, the so-called Indian Ocean dipole is defined by the difference of the SSTA in the western equatorial Indian Ocean from that in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean, indicating zonal heat contrast of the Indian Ocean SSTA. Although the name...

Optical parameters when DMSO is seeded

In clear conditions the intensity of direct beam is always 13.4 J m only. However, after the introduction of steam, the same intensity drops to a value about 6 J m only. In case of seeding, the scattered beams are produced at the expense of direct intensity. The forward-scattered intensities at 30 Table 2. Crystal habits when DMSO-coated Ammonium Sulfate is seeded. Temperature Crystal habit 22 C to 17 C Dendrite formations are highest. Rod and rectangular shapes are also significant. Dendrite...

Rainfall in India

Although the relationship between the Indian summer precipitation and ENSO in recent years is some what weakened, on the whole, the summer anomalous rainfall in India is still a typical example of the ENSO impacts. One of the causes of the weakened relationship between the Indian summer rainfall and ENSO is considered the influence of the Indian Ocean SSTA. If the composite effect of the SSTA in both the Pacific and the Indian Ocean is taken into account, it may make the relationship between...

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Key Basic Research and Development Project of China (Grant no. 2004CB18300), and the Innovation Key Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant no. ZKCX2-SW-226). 1. E. M. Rasmusson and T. H. Carpenter, The relationship between eastern equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures and rainfall over Indian and Sri Lanka, Mon. Wea. Rev. 111 (1983) 517-528. 2. C. F. Ropelewsk and M. S. Halpert, Global and regional scale precipitation patterns associated...

Acknowledgment

The authors' thanks are due to Indian Meteorological Department, Government of India for the sanction of the research project. The present work is a part of the project. 1. P. Warneck, Chemistry of the Natural Atmosphere (Academic Press, 2000). 2. P. L. Hanst, L. L. Spiller, D. M. Watts, J. W. Spence and M. F. Miller, Infrared measurements of fluorocarbons, carbon tetrachloride, carbonyl sulfide and other atmospheric trace gases, J. Air Pollutant Control Assoc. 25 (1975) 1220-1226. 3. F. J....

Introduction

The United States Environmental Protection Agency USEPA has prescribed the usage of certain types of air quality models to analyze characteristic ozone episodes and conceptualize ozone abatement strategies for ozone non-attainment regions in the corresponding State Implementation Plan SIP .1 Each SIP must demonstrate through computer modeling analyses and estimates that any suggested regulatory proposals will enable the pollution levels in the region to meet federal air quality standards in the...