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Leptitox Stop Food Cravings Summary


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Major Processing Steps Storage

Storage is needed to provide a constant supply of tubers to the processing lines during the operating season. Potato quality may deteriorate in storage, unless adequate conditions are maintained. The major problems associated with storage are sprout growth, reducing sugar accumulation, and rotting. Reduction in starch content, specific gravity, and weight may also occur. Handling and storage of the raw potatoes prior to processing are major factors in maintaining high-quality potatoes and reducing losses and waste loads during processing.

Dehydrated Diced Potato

Potatoes with white flesh color and low reducing sugar content are desirable for dice production. After washing and preliminary sorting, the potatoes are peeled by the steam or lye method. Minimum losses amount to 10 . One important factor during trimming is minimizing the exposure time. The tubers are cut into different sized pieces. After cutting and washing, the dice are blanched with water or steamed at 200-212 F. Following blanching, a carefully applied rinsing spray removes surface gelatinized starch to prevent sticking during dehydration. Sulfite is usually applied at this point as a spray solution of sodium sulfite, sodium bisulfite, or sodium metabisulfite. Calcium chloride is often added concurrently with sodium bisulfite or sodium metabisulfite. Following drying, the diced potatoes are screened to remove small pieces and bring the product within size specification limits. Finally, the potatoes are packed in cans or bags 3 .

Characteristics of Wastewater [20

Polished potatoes were then conveyed to the cutter. The degree of size reduction depended upon the requirements of the final product. Here the surface of the potato and the amount of water used for washing determine the quantity of soluble constituent in the waste stream. The pH of the stream was about 7. The COD and BOD values were about 50 of those of the effluent from the polisher. The TDS and TSS were approximately 1390 and 460 mg L, respectively. The blanching process removed reducing sugar, inorganic salts, gelatinized starch, and smaller amounts of protein and amino acids. The effluent stream from this operation had pH 6.2, total dissolved solids 1500 mg L, phenols 8.2 mg L, COD 1000 mg L, and BOD 800 mg L, respectively.

Identification of Acid Responsive Proteins in Acacia Mangium

We extracted proteins of Acacia mangium according to an altered Hurkman and Tanaka's method.1 Tissue (100 mg) was homogenized with liquid nitrogen and transferred into 200 l of preparation buffer (0.7 M sucrose, 0.5 M Trizma base, 30 mM HCl, 50 mM EDTA, 0.1 M KCl, 2 -mercaptoethanol). The homo-genate was incubated at 4 C for 10 min and had added 50 l of phenol solution saturated with water. After ten minutes of incubation at room temperature, it was centrifuged at 8,000 rpm for 10 min at room temperature. The phenol phase was collected and added to 50 l of Hurkman and Tanaka's preparation buffer. Following a second 10 min incubation, the extract was again centrifuged at 8,000 rpm for 10 min at room temperature. The phenol phase was collected and added to a five-fold volume of 0.1 M ammonium acetate-methanol. The extract was stored -20 C overnight and centrifuged at 30,000 rpm for 10 min at 4 C. The protein precipitate was washed with 0.1M ammonium acetate-methanol.

Interpretation of Growth Promotion and Quality Improvement

Roots of Eucalyptus camaldulensis plants cultured for six weeks on sugar-free MS medium under CO2 enriched conditions, using four different supporting materials (By courtesy of C. Kirdmanee).8 Upper left Agar Upper right Gelrite Lower left Plastic net Lower right Vermiculute. Fig. 28.2. Roots of Eucalyptus camaldulensis plants cultured for six weeks on sugar-free MS medium under CO2 enriched conditions, using four different supporting materials (By courtesy of C. Kirdmanee).8 Upper left Agar Upper right Gelrite Lower left Plastic net Lower right Vermiculute.

Culture Establishment

After initiation, ESM cultures are transferred to maintenance medium for continuation of true-to-conifer type cleavage poly-embryony under lower concentrations of auxin and cytokinin.6 At this time, osmolality is increased from 90-100 to 190-200 mM kg, with 5 g l myo-inositol and 30 g l maltose (compared with 0.1 g l myo-inositol and 15 g l sucrose in the initiation medium). We have found that the type of sugar is very important for subsequent embryo development on plates. Early stage embryos were able to fully mature only when grown in the maltose maintenance medium.7 Without increased osmolal-ity treatment, which leads to larger embryonal heads of early stage embryos, many genotypes of Douglas fir and loblolly pine did not develop good quality cotyledonary embryos.8

Nitrogen Fixation Analysis Of The Genome Of The Cyanobacterium Nostoc Punctiforme

Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 is a diazotrophic, filamentous cyanobacterium with oxygen-evolving photosynthesis. Although this strain is primarily an autotroph, it can grow heterotrophically in the dark using sucrose, glucose or fructose (Summers et al. 1995). Like all cyanobacteria it has chlorophyll a as well as light harvesting pigments called phycobiliproteins. This strain chromatically adapts to light by varying the amounts of one biliprotein, phycoerythrin, in response to the presence or absence of green light. Cyanobacteria, which form a monophyletic group, are classified on the basis of cell division (resulting in unicellular or filamentous growth) and the differentiation of specialized cells, such as heterocysts, akinetes, or hormogonia (Rippka et al. 1979). Heterocysts are specialized for nitrogen fixation in an oxic environment, hormogonia are motile filaments, and akinetes are resistant to many environmental stresses. N. punctiforme has one of largest bacterial genomes...

Coproduct recovery in vegetable oil processing

Glucose is the main soluble sugar present in olive pulp together with smaller quantities of sucrose and fructose and a significant amount of the polyol called mannitol. The insoluble polysaccharides in the cell wall of olive fruit are composed of pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose. The hemicelluloses are mainly rich in acid xylan and xyloglucan. Therefore, this by-product may be utilized as a chemical feedstock for the production of fermentable sugar as a source of mannitol. Furthermore, due to cleavage of the hemicel-lulose by the steam treatment, a wide variety of xylo-oligomers with different molecular fragments might be obtained. Carbohydrates are not only An important polysaccharide obtainable from OMWW is xanthan, which is composed of the sugars glucose, mannose and glucuronic acid. Xanthan is widely used as a thickener or viscosifier in both the food and nonfood industries. Xanthan is extracellulary produced by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris, and has become the focus of...

Unit operations and unit processes

The scheme involves mere physical movement of materials, no chemical or biological changes occur. In addition, the function of the various operations in the scheme, such as screening, may be applied not only to the primary treatment of sewage as the figure indicates but to other plant operations as well. For example, bagasse may be screened from sugar cane juice in the expression of sugar in a sugar mill, or the larger particles resulting from the cleaning of pineapples in a pineapple factory may be screened from the rest of the wastewater. To master the function of screening, it is not necessary that this be studied in a wastewater treatment plant, in

Alanine Synthesis And Secretion By Rhizobium Leguminosarum

Recent data have challenged the long held view that the product of nitrogenase activity, ammonia, is transferred from the symbiosome to the host cell cytosol where it is assimilated (reviewed in Day et al. 2001). Waters et al. (1998) have presented evidence for the excretion of fixed N as alanine by bacteroids isolated from soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and purified by sucrose density gradient fractionation. However, excretion and accumulation of alanine by bacteroids was highest at p02 less than 0.01 while nitrogenase activity was maximal at p02 of 0.06. On the other hand, flow-chamber experiments under conditions where nitrogenase activity was optimized, also with isolated bacteroids from soybean, identified ammonia as the major excreted product of fixation (Li et al. 2001). A significant difference between the two types of experimental approach was the removal of the excreted products of fixation in the flow-through system while they accumulated in the closed system used by Waters...

Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on Crops

Studies indicating that the initial stimulation of photosynthetic rates declines with exposure to elevated CO2 (Bowes 1993 Moore et al. 1999 Stitt and Krapp 1999). Acclimation of plants to elevated CO2 has thoroughly been described (Heineke et al. 1999 Moore et al. 1999). A decline in photosynthesis can be accompanied by a reduction in Rubisco content (Moore et al. 1999) and an adjustment in leaf carbohydrate signalling (Heineke et al. 1999 Moore et al. 1999), such as increased starch content and a decrease in nitrogen concentration (Stitt and Krapp 1999). Some of these alterations that lead to decreased photosynthesis might be caused by restriction of root growth due to limited physical rooting space in pots, although results from different studies have been inconsistent (Berntson et al. 1993). In such situations, two important regulating factors are (1) reduced nutrient availability (McConnaughay et al. 1993), particularly nitrogen and phosphorus, and (2) sugar sensing and...

Other Bioconversion Options

Employing synthetic biology to produce bacteria that make increased amounts of fatty acids and also inserting genes that produce enzymes that convert the fatty acids into hydrocarbons which are then excreted. The bacteria are claimed to make and excrete hydrocarbons of any length and structure that is desired. The hydrocarbon phase-separates from the growth medium, markedly reducing separation costs. The feedstock for the bacteria is renewable sugars which can be obtained from sugar cane or grain or from cellulosic biomass 36 . A number of other attempts 35, 37 are under way.

Changes during fruit ripening

Fruit ripening encompasses both catabolic and anabolic changes. Many fruit store the imported products of photosynthesis (e.g. simple sugars) as the polymerized carbohydrate starch. Bitter- or astringent-tasting phenolic compounds are also often present in immature fruit. Cell walls of unripe fruit are ridged, and adjacent cells are held firmly together by pectic substances in the middle lamella between cells. Immature fruit are therefore not sweet, soft or pleasant tasting to potential herbivores (which include humans). As fruits ripen, starch is hydrolyzed to simple sugars, phenolic compounds are removed either by being metabolized or polymerized, and the structure of the cell wall and middle lamella are altered by specific weight compounds that can be translocated from the senescing tissue to growing portions of the plant. Export of these molecular fragments is precluded in harvested commodities because of their detachment from the parent plant, and their retention and accumulation...

Supporting conventional breeding

Example 15 Collaboration between CIMMYT, Cornell University and the Chinese, Kenyan, Thai and Zimbabwean governments is identifying key regulators in drought response pheno-types from 350 tropical maize lines. Metabolites such as sucrose, glucose, starch, ABA and the ABA glucose ester of leaves and reproductive organs are being assessed under both water-stressed and well-watered conditions, alongside yield components and secondary traits. The genotypic component of the association test involves haplotyping about 130 ABA and carbohydrate synthesis pathway candidate genes and drought-tolerance response genes involved from maize and other plant species (Ribaut et al., 2009). One- and two-dimensional gas chro-matography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been used to survey 70 rice cultivars for important nutritional metabolites (Kusano et al., 2007 Oryzabase, 2009).

Recovery of functional biopolymers

Commercially, pectin is extracted by treating the raw material with hot dilute mineral acid at pH 2. The hot pectin viscous extract is separated from the strongly swollen and partly disintegrated residue by a combination of centrifugation and filtration. The clarified extract is brought to pH 4 and concentrated under vacuum prior to alcoholic precipitation, pressing and drying. Throughout the process, unnecessary holding times at high temperatures are avoided in order to prevent pectin demethylation and depolymerisation. Pectins can be highly variable, depending mainly on the raw material quality, and it is usual to blend together a number of production batches and dilute them with sucrose or dextrose to a standard gelling performance. The process described above yields a pectin of around 75 methyl-esterification. To produce other types of pectins with diverse application properties, some saponification of the methyl groups is required. This is usually performed by the action of acid...

Hightemperature shorttime extrusion

Destructuring of Brewer's spent grain (BSG) example The extrusion cooking process is often used to incorporate dietary fibre into expanded cereal-based products (Smith, 2003). Lue et al. (1991) added sugar beet fibre and Hu et al. (1996) added soy fibre to maize in both cases. Spent grain was used in extrusion cooking by Wampler and Gould (1984). Brewers' spent grain (BSG) is a major by-product of the brewing industry and is mainly used as cattle feed. The composition of BSG includes arab-inoxylan, protein and residual starch, and therefore it could be more economically used. To investigate this, BSG has recently been subjected to milling and sieving to produce palea and lemma rich in arabinoxylans, and also to produce protein- and starch-rich material (Jay et al., 2006).

Enzymatic Activities and Soil Carbon Sequestration Strategies

Another important enzymatic activity involved in soil C cycling is invertase. As for urease, for which urea is the substrate, invertase is the only other hydrolase assessed using its natural substrate, namely sucrose (Speir et al. 2002). Only two papers dealing with effects of compost on invertase activity were found in literature (Table 7.2). Puglisi et al. (2006) found that in a sandy loam soil amended with 25 ton ha-1 of MSW compost, invertase was significantly enhanced, while according to Nayak et al. (2007) invertase activity was instead reduced in a soil of similar texture (sandy clay loam). In the latter, however, only 5 ton ha-1 of compost were tested, and the presence of clays might as well played a role in adsorbing the enzyme and thus reducing its activity (Gianfreda et al. 1991).

Renewable Energy In The World Today

Solar Energy Locations

From Fig. 1, it can be seen that wind power has an installed capacity of 121 MW worldwide. The wind industry this is growing at annual rate of 30 , with widespread use in Europe and the USA 4 . The annual manufacturing output of the photovoltaics (PV) industry reached a record 6.9 GW in 2008, bringing the installed capacity to 13 MW with the largest solar farms'' operating Germany, Spain, and Portugal. Several large solar thermal power plants operate in USA and Spain with the largest of these being the 354 MW SEGS power plant in the Mojave Desert. While being more geographically restricted than other renewable energy sources, the world's largest geothermal power installation is located in California, with a rated capacity of 750 MW 4 . Hydroelectricity is also, by its nature, more geographically limited and growth in this area has been less, about 8 for small-scale hydro projects and 3 in large-scale hydro projects. Brazil is leading the world in ethanol production from sugar cane,...

Biomass energy and biofuels potentialities and risks

Ethanol is by far the most extensively used biofuel worldwide. It is produced by fermentation of sugar, obtained from plants such as sugar cane and sugar beet. Production of ethanol from sugar cane is widespread in Brazil, a country which has considerably developed the use of ethanol as a fuel. It can also be produced from starch derived from cereals such as maize and wheat. The sugar required for the fermentation step is obtained beforehand from starch under the effect of an enzyme. The production of ethanol from cereals, in particular maize, is mainly carried out in the USA, which is the second major ethanol producer. The biochemical pathway requires fractionation of the lignocellu-losic biomass into its three fractions cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Glucose can be obtained from cellulose under the effect of enzymes. The glucose then undergoes a fermentation step to obtain ethanol. The aim of current studies is to improve the performance of this conversion process. The...

Separation and recovery technologies

Sedimentation (also called gravity settling or clarification) Sedimentation is the separation of solids from a liquid by means of gravity. It depends on the differences in specific gravities between the suspended matter and the solution. Gravity clarifiers are often equipped with skimming mechanisms for removing floating materials such as grease and fibers. They are commonly used to treat waste streams from sugar beet, meat, fish and poultry processing operations. Sedimentation can sometimes be done naturally without adding chemicals. However, for many applications, use of chemical coagulants can be very helpful in enhancing the removal efficiency of suspended colloids (Soderquist and Montgomery, 1975). Theoretically, sedimentation can be modeled by the laws of relative motion between particles and the enclosing liquid (Pinheiro and Cabral, 1993).

In Vitro Acclimatization and Rooting20

Sucrose concentration * S and F at the left represent sugar-containing and sugar-free medium A and F at the middle represent agar and Florialite L and H at the right represent low and high number of air exchanges per hour of the vessel, N, or vessel ventilation rate N. vessel air volume No. of plantlets in the vessel). provided that the sugar-free supporting material consists of inorganic components and its surface is dry. Transplanting of plants with supporting material reduces root damage, saves labor costs, and gives a possibility of automatic transplanting.

Greenhouse Gas Balance

In spite of the wide span of these calculation results, it can be summarised that oil seeds and grain converted to straight oil, biodiesel or bioethanol have the lowest CO2 saving potential, less than 5 t CO2eq ha-1 year-1. Ethanol as gasoline substitute produced from sugar beets and potato shows a very wide range from -0.7 to 11 t CO2eq ha-1 year-1 which is caused by different conversion technologies, different credit assumptions and different calculation methods. This is also true for biomethanol from whole crop cereals. With approximately 10-14 t CO2eq ha-1 year-1 the best figures in total are achieved by ligno-cellulosic crop species such as whole crop cereals and SRCs which are used to generate heat or combined heat and power with a boiler or gasifier.

Biodiesel and bioethanol

Bioethanol is the most widely used biofuel for transport and accounts for more than 94 per cent of global biofuel production, the rest being mostly biodiesel from various oil plants such as palm oil, soy and rapeseed (IEA, 2008, p 161). About 60 per cent of the world's bioethanol comes from sugarcane and 40 per cent from other crops. Germany is the market leader in biodiesel where bioethanol is insignificant. With sales at approximately 1.5 million tonnes, biodiesel currently supplies more than 4 per cent of the demand for diesel. The planned increase to 2 million tonnes would allow biodiesel to cover approximately 6 per cent of the current demand. Germany currently has about 750,000ha for biodiesel production the land available for biodiesel production cannot, however, be extended to more than 1 million hectares. The international trade in biodiesel is only beginning. The biofuel of choice is clearly Brazilian ethanol made from sugarcane, since both in terms of production costs and...

Forced Ventilation Micropropagation Systems and Their Application

Effects of sucrose concentration, supporting material and number of air exchanges on increased fresh mass (FM), dry matter (DM), shoot length (SL), leaf area (LA), number of unfolded leaves (NUFL) and root length (RL) of coffee (C. arabusta) plantlets on day 40 of culture Table 28.4. Effects of sucrose concentration, supporting material and number of air exchanges on increased fresh mass (FM), dry matter (DM), shoot length (SL), leaf area (LA), number of unfolded leaves (NUFL) and root length (RL) of coffee (C. arabusta) plantlets on day 40 of culture Sucrose conc. Sucrose Sucrose conc. zMedium contained 1 mg I 1 IBA. ycc 2 concentration inside the culture room with or without CO2 enrichment was 1500 or 400 imol mol 1, respectively. xVermiculite and cellulose fiber mixture. wOnly one replication for treatment with 30 g I 1 sucrose, without growth regulator and no CO2 enrichment, and control treatments. vANOVA (Analysis of variance) was applied for 9 treatments (except for...

Health Related Microorganisms

Samples were brought to the laboratory and were filtered in the same day. Samples of 100 liters were filtered through cellulose acetate membrane disk filters (142mm diameter, 1.2 (i m pore size, Millipore). Then filters were completely dissolved in acetone in centrifuge tubes and centrifuged at 1050g for lOminutes. The pellet was purified by percoll-sucrose floatation.

Organic Loading Rate OLR

Sucrose wastewater Sucrose wastewater Sucrose Sucrose A trend was observed towards a wider diversity of methanogenic sub-populations paralleling an increase in the complexity of waste composition. At least four distinct micro-colonies were observed in granules treating brewery wastewater (Wu, 1991). One of these micro-colonies was composed of Methanothrix-like rods only, while the other micro-colonies consisted of H2-CO2 utilizing Methanobacterium-like rods in juxtaposition with three different rod-shaped syntrophs (Hickey, 1991). Based on full-scale UASB experiences in treating a variety of different waste-waters, it has been established that granulation of anaerobic sludge takes place in many different types of wastewaters. With a substrate containing 10 sucrose and 90 VFA mixture (acetate plus propionate), granular and flocculent sludge cannot be effectively separated. The granules contained a high fraction of filamentous organisms that were mainly attached to inert support...

Anaerobic Formaldehyde Removal

Strates such as hydrogen, sodium butyrate, and sucrose. They obtained the highest degradation rates with sucrose. Vidal and colleagues1 treated wastewater containing formaldehyde in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor using glucose as the cosubstrate, as this compound enhances the reduction of aldehyde to methanol, which is less toxic for the bacteria. Values of 80 mg L of formaldehyde were reported when acetate was used,10 whereas Todini and Hulshoff Pol9 reported a 50 inhibition at 238 mg L of formaldehyde when sucrose was fed as the main cosubstrate.

Chemicals and biofuels production

Biotechnology, in particular the fermentation sector, has become more and more attractive in recent years for the production of chemicals and biofuels from organic wastes (Willke and Vorlop, 2004). In fact, there are numerous possibilities for replacing chemical techniques with biotechnological methods based on renewable resources. The most important biogenic sources of raw materials for industrial chemicals are oil plants (oil, fat, glycerol, celluloses) starch plants (starch, inulin, carbohydrates, celluloses) sugar beets and sugar cane (sucrose) wood (ligno-cellulose, cellulose) and waste and residues from agriculture and industry (biomass, fats, oils, whey, glycerol). The food industry is probably the main source for these materials.

Regional Status and Potential of Renewables to Address Climate Change

The oil embargos of the 1970s spurred Brazil to initiate Proalcool, a program designed to substitute domestically produced ethanol from sugar cane for imported petroleum. In the early 1980s, the program grew rapidly and ethanol sales exceeded gasoline, largely due to government subsidies. Subsidies have declined since then, but ethanol maintains an important, if no longer dominant, share of the liquid fuel market (Keegan et al., 1996).

Food Quality Safety and Environmental Impacts

Make a real difference for the consumer in terms of health. Food production methods probably affect food quality to the extent that they have a significant impact on health. There is now a good basis for designing studies that can elucidate which production factors are important in this regard, and that the next step is to define and test these factors (Brandt 2007). Hazards traditionally considered serious food safety issues responsible for food poisonings and with no indication of benefits are pathogens such as prions (BSE), allergens, mycotoxins, dioxins, GMOs, pesticide residues, growth hormones, food additives colourants, preservatives, flavours, process aids, nitrite added to processed meat, salt, added sugar and saturated fat (Brandt 2008). The role of organic agriculture whether in farming, processing, distribution or consumption is to sustain and enhance the process of food safety and health at all stages and levels of the agroecosystem.

Anion control through biological sulfate reduction

Low-molecular-weight organic compounds, such as acetate, propionate, ethanol, glucose, glycerol, malate, lactate, and sucrose, as well as H2 and CO2 are known electron donors and carbon sources for SO24 reduction 37,41 . Molasses has also been shown to be effective carbon source in SO4 reduction processes 45 . The use of appropriate carbon source is an important consideration owing to several reasons cost, speed of assimilation, and by-product formation. For instance, lactate is assimilated more rapidly by SO4 -reducing bacteria than acetate or ethanol, and might therefore be used initially as a carbon source to reduce the induction times for reactor operation 37,41 . However, lactate could be more expensive than ethanol or acetate, and SO4 -reducing bacteria utilizing lactate would yield acetate as major by-product and propionate as a minor by-product in the treated effluent 46,47 . Ethanol would also yield acetate as a reaction by-product. These organic products would be poorly...

Other Biomass Options 351 Ethanol

Biochemical conversion of starch from corn or wheat involves conversion of starch to six-carbon sugars and its fermentation to ethanol using natural yeast. Sugar from sugar cane is fermented directly. Fermentation technology is mature, commercially robust, and highly optimized. Sugar cane to ethanol is mature and practiced in large volumes in Brazil. Sugar cane-based ethanol has a LC GHG emission that is 85 lower than petroleum-based fuels. This is in contrast to grain ethanol, as produced in the U.S. from corn, which produces about a 25 reduction in CO2 emissions over petroleum-derived fuels on an energy-equivalent basis because of all the fossil fuels used in grain ethanol production 27, 28 . Furthermore, ethanol from sugar cane could provide a roughly 90 reduction in petroleum imports vs. petroleum-derived fuels on an energy equivalent basis 27 . However, grain ethanol can reduce petroleum imports by a larger amount also because limited petroleum fuels are used in growing and...

Adaptation Mechanisms

Encystation of protozoan cells is accompanied by the processes of differentiation, which are characterized by alterations such as considerable dehydration of the cytoplasm, autophagic activity, deposition of storage substances, formation of a protective envelope, and changes in the organization of the nuclear apparatus (Lozina-Lozinsky 1972 Corliss and Esser 1974 Walker et al. 1980 Ushatinskaya 1990 Gutierrez et al. 1990 Guppy and Withers 1999). The resting cysts of cili-ates (e.g., Colpodidae) accumulate a large amount of disaccharides, trehalose and or sucrose (Potts 1994). In the process of dehydration, it is suggested that these polyhydroxylic compounds substitute for the aqueous hydration envelope around macromolecules and intracellular organelles, thus protecting them from damage (Clegg 1986).

Acidinduced Genes Identified with Fusions

This gene is adjacent to the essential act A gene. Its sequence suggests that it encodes a regulator protein it has an H-T-H motif for DNA-binding, but thus far we do not know what it regulates. It is induced 5-fold by low pH, but its responses to other stresses (copper, zinc, ethanol, hydrogen peroxide) indicate that it functions in a range of stress response systems. However, not all stresses induce its expression - it does not respond to high temperature, high sucrose concentration, phosphate starvation or in stationary phase. Its expression is not dependent on an intact actSR system, and we do not know how it is controlled. Its inactivation results in no loss of symbiotic effectiveness in nodulation tests with Medicago murex, nor is there any impairment of acid tolerance (Reeve et al. 1998).

Recovery of Organic Compounds

Pectins are natural hydrocolloids found in higher plants that are widely used as gelling agents, stabilizers, and emulsifiers in the food industry. Basically, they are complex polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked-a-D-galactosyluronic acid residues that are occasionally interrupted by (1 2)-a-L-rhamnose residues carrying sugar side chains, typically galactose and arabinose. Commercial pectins are only available from two important sources apple pomace and citrus peels. The availability of other pectic sources is always being searched and the possibility of using waste products as raw materials is an important economical aspect. The waste beet solids from sugar

UASB and EGSB Treatment Systems

Anaerobic treatment, especially thermophilic treatment, offers an attractive alternative for the treatment of high-strength, hot wastewater. The thermophilic process, compared to the mesophilic anaerobic process, has the advantages of increased loading rate and the elimination of cooling before treatment. Furthermore, the heat content of the wastewater would be available for post-treatment. Loading rates up to 80 kgCOD m3 day and more have been reached in laboratory-scale thermophilic reactors treating glucose, acetate, and sucrose and thermomechanical pulping whitewater. Table 18 shows the results of food wastewater treatment by thermophilic UASB at 55 C together with the examples for pulp mill wastewater 31-40 . For alcohol distillery wastewater at the loading rate of 100 kgCOD m3 day, successful removal efficiencies were reported. Rintala and Lipisto 42 reported 70 C thermopilic UASB experiment using pulp mill wastewater however, the COD removal was not high at 56 at the loading...

Renewables in the food industry

There are no reasons why the food processing industry could not use electricity generated by any renewable energy source. However, a very specific potential offers a co-product recovery from food processing that can use photosynthetic energy stored in biomass. In addition to the previously mentioned bagasse from sugar cane, the use of straw, grass and similar organic by-products from food processing is increasing.

Environmental factors influencing anaerobic biohydrogen production

The selection of the correct pH level is crucial to hydrogen production, due to the effects of pH on the hydrogenase activity or specific metabolic pathways (Dabrock et al., 1992). At pH values lower than 6.3 or higher than 7.8, the methanogenic rate may decrease or stop. Using a low pH environment to inhibit methane production in the acidogenic phase and to obtain dominant microbes for hydrogen production from sludge is considered feasible. Van Ginkel et al. (2001) reported the highest rate of hydrogen production occurred at an initial pH of 5.5, with a sucrose substrate concentration of 7.5 g COD L, in batch experiments using composts as the inoculum. Lee et al. (2002) investigated the effects of initial pH in the batch culture using sucrose from mixed micro-flora. Their results show that maximum specific hydrogen production yields were achieved at an initial pH of 9.0, whereas small amounts of hydrogen production were observed at pH values of 5.0 and 5.5. These experiments...

Longer term perspectives mineral sequestration and CO2 recycling

The production of algae in bioreactors is presently considered for sequestering CO2 produced by a fossil fuel power plant. Such algae can then be converted into biofuels (diesel from the fatty fractions and or ethanol from sugars derived from the biomass). Despite the fact that this area is very active, it remains difficult to ascertain the economic competitiveness of these developments.

Mortality Caused by Pathogens

The commonly occurring shoestring root rot fungus (Armillaria mellea) has been associated with oak mortality species (Wargo 1977) and has been implicated as the primary causal agent (D. J. Lodge, pers. comm.) in mortality observed in the southeast during the 1980s. Nonetheless, there is considerable speculation about whether primary or secondary causes of mortality can be assigned to a single vector (Wargo 1977). The effectiveness of the fungus in causing or contributing to mortality is related to an individual tree's condition, its degree of stress because of low moisture availability (Staley 1965), defoliation (Wargo 1977), or the presence of stem borers (Agrilus bilineatus Weber Dunbar and Stephens 1975). To more efficiently support respiration and other metabolic processes during prolonged periods of severe moisture stress, carbohydrates stored in the root systems as starch are converted into simple sugars (Wargo 1977 and 1996). The fungus is better able to use simple sugars than...

Potato Processing And Sources Of Wastewater

High-quality raw potatoes are important to potato processing. Potato quality affects the final product and the amount of waste produced. Generally, potatoes with high solid content, low reducing sugar content, thin peel, and of uniform shape and size are desirable for processing. Potatoes contain approximately 18 starch, 1 cellulose, and

Life Cycle Assessment Methods4

LCA of corn-based ethanol and other liquid fuels derived from plant materials (e.g., Davis et al., 2009 Kim et al., 2009 Robertson et al., 2008 Tilman et al., 2009) illustrate both the value of the method and some of the complexities in applying it. Because corn ethanol is produced from sugars created by photosynthesis, which removes CO2 from ambient air, it might be assumed that substituting corn ethanol for gasoline produced from petroleum would substantially reduce net GHG emissions. However, LCA shows that these emissions reductions are much smaller (and in some cases may even result in higher GHG emissions) when the emissions associated with growing the corn, processing it into ethanol, and transporting it are accounted for. A substantial shift to corn-based ethanol (or other biofuels) could also lead to significant land use changes and changes in food prices. LCA also points out the importance of farming practices in shaping agricultural GHG emissions and to the potential for...

Franz Conen and Albrecht Neftel Introduction

World population has quadrupled during the 20th century. This has been accompanied by a dramatic increase in agricultural productivity, based to a major extent on industrial nitrogen fixation by the Haber-Bosch process developed at the beginning of that century. From a global perspective, population growth was, and still is, larger than the growth in agricultural productivity per unit land area. Consequently, agriculture continues to expand into previously pristine ecosystems. Also, emerging and growing demands for new products, such as biofuels from sugar cane, maize or palm oil, result in land-use changes. Increasing affluence in many parts of the world boosts demands for meat and milk products, driving a conversion of large areas of tropical forests into grasslands and soya bean fields. Land-use change has also taken place in temperate and boreal regions, where pristine grasslands have been converted to cropland, and wetlands have been drained to establish commercial forestry,...

Acidogenic Bacteria

Polymeric hydrocarbons are hydrolyzed into monomers (glucose and other sugars) by most facultative anaerobic bacteria via exo-enzymes (McInerney and Bryant 1981). One part is totally used for protein synthesis and bacterial growth, while another part is converted into lower fatty acids. An example is presented by Eq. (8.1), see Fig. 8.1

Anaerobic Processes

Anaerobic biodegradation (digestion) consists of a series of microbiological processes that convert organic compounds to methane and carbon dioxide. While several types of microorganisms are implicated in aerobic processes, anaerobic processes are driven mostly by bacteria. The anaerobic process has three major steps hydrolysis, acidogenesis, and methanogenesis. During hydrolysis, consortia of anaerobic bacteria break down complex organic molecules (proteins, cellulose, lignin, and lipids) of the influent matter into soluble monomer molecules such as amino acids, simple sugars, glycerol, and fatty acids. The monomers are directly available to the next group of bacteria. Hydrolysis of the complex molecules is

Sink Capacity

The fact that sucrose accumulation in the mesophyll cell occurs when photosynthesis is saturated implies that the removal of photo-synthates from the sources, but not the source capacity, is limiting. So, consequently, the question is Can we increase sink demand We attempted to increase sink strength by expressing an enzyme that metabolizes sucrose in sink organs to enhance the sucrose gradient between source and sink. This was achieved by expressing an invertase from baker's yeast in the cytosol of potato tubers (Fig. 15.2). To our surprise, the consequence was a strong reduction of sink strength and a strong increase in the concentration of glucose (Table 15.1).4 * Sucrose * Sucrose Fig 15.2. Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in potato tubers (sink tissue). Metabolites ADP adenosine diphosphate ATP adenosine triphosphate F-6-P fructose-6-phosphate G-1-P glu-cose-1-phosphate G-6-P glucose-6-phosphate P phosphate Pi inorganic phosphate PPi pyrophosphate UDP uridine diphosphate UTP...


And IBA containing agar medium in the culture vessel and with low number of air exchanges under low CO2 concentration in the culture room) gave the lowest fresh and dry mass, and no root formation, while rooting of the plants was enhanced in other treatments (Fig. 28.4). Net photosynthetic rate was higher throughout the culture period in the treatment with sugar-free Florialite supporting material in the culture vessel with high number of air exchanges under high CO2 concentration (data not shown).

Lactose from whey

Lactitol is produced from the catalytic hydrogenation of lactose to produce the sugar alcohol (Visser et al. 1988). Lactitol is used as a low-calorie sweetener and also acts as dietary fibre, competing against sorbitol and maltitol. Lactitol is less cariogenic than sucrose. It is not absorbed through the small intestine, so it does not raise blood glucose levels and is thus suitable for diabetics. It is fermented in the large intestine by the natural microflora to give 50 of the energy value of lactose (Booy 1987).


A number of different mechanisms have been suggested to be important in the anhydrobiotic survival of resurrection plants. Trehalose is rare in plants, although its presence has been reported in a few species, but other sugars (such as sucrose, raffinose and maltose), polyols (such as glycerol, sorbitol and mannitol) or amino acids (such as proline) may play a similar role to trehalose in plants, protecting membranes and proteins during desiccation. The sugars may also be involved in the formation of glasses which stabilise the cells during anhydrobiosis. Glass formation has been demonstrated in plant seeds. There are thus a variety of mechanisms that appear to be involved in anhydrobiosis in plants. Plants vary in their relative reliance on protective mechanisms during desiccation and repair mechanisms during rehydration. Protection involves both low molecular weight substances, such as sucrose, and proteins like dehydrins. In higher plants (resurrection plants), protective...

Breeding approaches

Sucrose synthase (SuSy) (carbohydrate metabolism) Increased SuSy activity after the onset of hypoxia has been documented in many crop species including wheat, maize, rice and potato. SuSy exists in the cytoplasm of many non-photosynthetic tissues, where it increases sucrose cleavage, providing carbohydrates for alcoholic fermentation and the synthesis of storage and structural polymers (Dennis et al., 2000 Agarwal and Grover, 2006).

Reproductive biology

Trees Peat Swamp Forest

Despite pollination being performed by different bat lineages in the palaeo-and neotropics, the bat-flower syndrome is quite uniform. Flowers open in the evening to coincide with the largely nocturnal foraging of the pollinators. They are usually large and pale with a distinctive musky, fermented odour and copious nectar. The flowers are mostly held away from the foliage to allow easy detection and access by the bats (Fig. 4.2). This is often acheived by having the flowers on the ends of branches held above, or dangling below the main crown. Alternatively, cauliflory or ramiflory are often associated with bat-pollination. The individual flowers are either large and robust or small and aggregated into many-flowered inflorescences that present a shaving brush-like array to the visiting bat (e.g. Parkia). Large bat-flowers are either the brush type with many long stamens, e.g. Adansonia, Barringtonia, or big, thick fleshy bowls, e.g. Oroxylum indicum, Fagraea racemosa . The large size of...

Building Blocks

Building blocks are chemical molecules with multiple functional groups that through transformation can be a source for a wide variety of useful chemicals and synthesis pathways. In 2004, a study from the Biomass Program of the U. S. Department of Energy (DoE) created the 'Top Value Added Chemicals from Biomass' in which twelve chemical building blocks originating from sugar were identified 23 -see Figure 12.6. This detailed report also gives a comprehensive overview regarding potential conversion pathways from these 12 bio-based building blocks to a number of high value added chemicals and or materials.

Low Carbon Fuels

Brazil was the first country to make a significant shift to renewable, lower carbon fuels based on producing ethanol from sugar cane, but many countries around the world are now pursuing similar approaches with mixed success. California recently +2 with some of the plant's power coming from coal +3 with the plant's coming from natural gas +4 made from sugarcane and shipped here +5 derived from landfills in California Source California Air Resources Board +2 with some of the plant's power coming from coal +3 with the plant's coming from natural gas +4 made from sugarcane and shipped here +5 derived from landfills in California Source California Air Resources Board


The current massive switch from food production to growing crops for fuel forces us to answer the question Do we really want people to starve so that we can continue to drive our cars Thus according to the World Bank the price of food has risen by 80 in the three years to 2008, due to shortages of supply and rising demand, pushing 100 million people below the poverty line. This has partly been blamed on the USA and European Union for encouraging the conversion of corn to ethanol as an alternative to petrol. The European Union plans to use this for 50 of its transport fuel by 2010, and large increases are also planned in the US. However, it failed to reach its 2 market share target in 2005, but still aims for 5.75 market share by 2010 and 14 by 2020. The difficulty is that 'biofuels in Europe are expensive, between 30 and 45 p litre whereas biofuel made from sugar cane costs 6-11 p litre in countries such as Brazil that has higher crop yields and lower costs for land and labour'...

Frozen French Fries

For frozen French fries and other frozen potato production, large potatoes of high specific gravity and low reducing sugar content are most desirable. After washing, the potatoes are peeled by the steam or lye method. Peeling and trimming losses vary with potato quality and are in the range 15-40 . After cutting and sorting, the strips are usually water blanched. Because the blanching water is relatively warm, its leaching effect may result in high dissolved starch content in the wastewater. Surface moisture from the blanching step is removed by hot air

Source Capacity

The sucrose is usually exported to sink organs of the plant such as growing leaves, the root system and storage organs. In terms of regulation, two metabolites are of central importance. The first is inorganic phosphate, which is released from fructose bisphopsphate and in the last step of sucrose synthesis, and is needed as a transport equivalent for every triose phosphate that is exported from the plastid. The second is fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (F-2,6-PP), which is produced from fructose 6-phosphate (F6P) and is a regulator of the activity of the enzyme frucosebisphosphatase (FBPase), which catalyzes the main regulatory reaction of sucrose synthesis. Under conditions when sucrose accumulates in the cytosol, fructose 6-phosphate (F6P) concentrations increase and as a consequence, F-2,6-PP is produced and causes inhibition of F6P production. This restrains triose phosphate withdrawal from the plastid and initiates transitory starch production in most...

Amino Acids

In 2005 2006 within the EU27 approx. 35.8 Mton of soybean flour were consumed. Without the ca. 300kton per year of L-lysine currently supplied, an additional 10 Mton of soybean flour in the EU would be required. Amino acids are produced by fermentation, enzymatic synthesis, extraction from protein-hydrolyzates, and chemical synthesis. Due to the substantial progress in strain development over the last two decades, the fermentation industry has seen rapid growth and increased process efficiency. The feedstocks are the typical biomass streams sucrose, molasses, and starch hydrolyzates 14 .

Municipal Waste

Biochemical conversion technologies use organisms to produce specific fuels. For example, a complex consortium of organisms found in nature will reduce cellulose and other carbohydrates to simple sugars, organic acids, and finally biogas. Currently, commercial biochemical conversion is limited to the recovery of biogas from landfills and sewage treatment. Future research could complete the development of technology to produce biogas or ethanol from municipal waste or selected components.

Transport Processes

Expressing an apoplastic invertase that increases the tuber size when expressed in potato tubers, in source but not in sink tissues, leads to a very strong reduction of biomass production, because the carbohydrates that are usually transported as sucrose cannot leave the source organs.6 The same is achieved by inhibiting the expression of the sucrose transporter that is responsible for loading sucrose into the vascular system.7 It is there fore very likely that transport of photosyn-thates from the source to the sink organs is the limiting step in biomass production. Consequently the question would be whether we could increase production by raising the transport abilities. Unfortunately, the question cannot be answered yet, because to date increased transport capacity has not been achieved. But, nevertheless, there is good evidence for the hypothesis of transport limitation. Potato plants react very sensitively to the reduction of transporter activity, thereby demonstrating that...

Life without water

Why is water so important Water comprises by far the largest proportion of the chemical make-up of the bodies of most organisms, usually from 60 to 90 per cent. Indeed, as JBS Haldane once remarked, 'Even the Pope is 70 per cent water'. Living organisms need metabolic processes which maintain their structure and enable them to move, grow and reproduce. Metabolism involves chemical reactions and these reactions need a medium in which they can take place in a controlled manner. Consider, for example, how organisms get their energy. Energy comes mainly from the oxidation or burning of sugars. It requires a sugar (such as glucose or sucrose) and oxygen. However, if you leave a bowl of sugar in contact with air, it does not spontaneously oxidise (or only does so very slowly) or burst into flames. If you throw sugar onto a fire, it burns violently, undergoing an oxidation which releases its chemical energy in the form of heat and light. When dissolved in water within the cells of an...

Extreme physiology

One way of reducing the problems with water caused by conditions which result in an osmotic stress is to accumulate substances within the organism or cell that reduce the difference between it and its surroundings. These substances are known as osmolytes since they take up space in a solution, thus reducing the osmotic concentration of water and balancing its levels inside and outside the cell. A variety of substances are used as compatible osmolytes (so called because they do not adversely affect the working of cells at the levels of concentrations to which they accumulate). Amino acids (e.g. proline, glycine, alanine and serine), substances derived from amino acids (e.g. glycine betaine and taurine), nitrogenous compounds (e.g. urea), sugars (e.g. trehalose, sucrose) and sugar alcohols (e.g. glycerol, sorbitol) are all used as compatible osmolytes by different organisms. Sodium, potassium and chloride ions are the most important solutes in cells. Changing the concentrations of these...


Sugar (esp. glucose) is mainly used for the production of ethanol. Complex carbohydrates such as starch and cellulose can also be used as a glucose source. The main sources of starch are maize (corn), potatoes, wheat, tapioca (cassava), rice, arrowroot and barley. Starch as well as sugar (here sucrose) is used mainly in the ethanol production, but also in the fermentation of organic acids (such as citric and lactic acids), amino acids, and antibiotics. Some of the other technical applications include biodegradable plastics (polylactic acid (PLA)) for the packaging and textile industries, surfactants, polyurethane, resins, binders, solvents, biopesticides and lubricants. On the other hand cellulose is mainly separated, along with lignin and proteins, from plants and biomass residues, such as wood or straw. In contrast to starch, the fermentation of cellulose with current enzymes is relatively slow and inefficient. Harsher environments as well as more complex and capital intensive...

Adaptive strategies

Its effect on water-use efficiency - has been traced to several genes involved in sucrose metabolism (Boyer and McLaughlin, 2007). Gene expression studies have confirmed that soluble starch synthase is a rate-limiting step for grain filling in wheat when exposed to high temperature (Hurkman et al., 2003), while surprisingly no clear role for heat shock proteins has been identified in cereals despite a well-established role in acclimation to heat stress in Arabidopsis (Barnabas et al., 2008). Favourable water relations are a crucial aspect of adaptation to both drought and heat stress so further understanding of the role of aquaporins, which show a high degree of diversity, in maintaining plant function under stress may lead to useful genetic modifications (Kaldenhoff et al., 2008). When combining heat and drought stress, novel metabolic responses have been demonstrated compared to when stresses are experienced in isolation (Mittler, 2006). Readers are referred to comprehensive reviews...


Growth of Coffea arabusta plants cultured in vitro as affected by sucrose concentration, type of supporting materials and vessel ventilation rate per plantlet was investigated at PPF (photosynthetic photon flux) of 100-200 mol m-2 s-1. Single nodal cuttings of in vitro coffee plants were cultured on medium without sugar and with 20 g l-1 sucrose. Two types of supporting materials, agar and Florialite (porous solid cubes consisting of a mixture of vermiculite and cellulose fibers, Nisshinbo Ind. Inc., Japan), and two levels of ventilaton rate per plantlet, 27 and 310 ml h-1, were examined (Table 28.3). Fresh mass, shoot length, root length and leaf area of plants cultured on Florialite with sugar-free nutrient solution under high vessel ventilation rate per plantlet were greater than those cultured on sugar-containing agar or Florialite (Fig. 28.3 and Fig. 28.1. Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantlets cultured for six weeks on sugar-free MS medium under CO2 non-enriched and CO2 enriched...

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