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Figure 5.1 Estimate of O, distribution (ppmv) in the absence of transport of O,—the "no transport" case. The contours were calculated from annually averaged P0x and L,h obtained from the Goddard two-dimensional climatológica! circulation model [73].

Latitude

Figure 5.2 Model calculation of the annually averaged O, field—"transported" O, from a calculation including the effects of the transport of O,. Calculated from the Goddard two-dimensional climatological circulation model [73].

Latitude

Figure 5.2 Model calculation of the annually averaged O, field—"transported" O, from a calculation including the effects of the transport of O,. Calculated from the Goddard two-dimensional climatological circulation model [73].

Latitude

Figure 5.3 Difference (ppmv) between Figures 5.1 and 5.2.

Latitude

Figure 5.3 Difference (ppmv) between Figures 5.1 and 5.2.

mid-stratosphere, meaning that the transport of Ov lowers the Ot abundance in this region of the atmosphere, i.e. there is a net transport of O, out of this region. There are negative values at mid- and high latitudes, meaning that the transport of O, acts to increase the O, abundance in this region of the atmosphere, i.e. there is a net transport of O, into this region. In other words, O, production exceeds loss in the tropics, and O, loss exceeds production in the mid- and high latitudes. Transport evens out this imbalance by transporting O, out of the region of excess production into the region of excess loss.

Thus, transport plays an important role in regulating lower- and mid-stratospheric O,. We present in this chapter a short discussion of the salient features of the stratospheric circulation, with an emphasis on the transport of O, in the stratosphere. The interested reader can find in-depth treatments of the circulation of the stratosphere elsewhere 156,145,146].

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