Stratospheric Ozone

Transport Into and Out of the Stratosphere

Ozone Uptake Into The Stratrosphere

The stratosphere is not a closed system but exchanges mass with its neighbors, the troposphere (below) and mesosphere (above). We will discuss these interactions in this section. Since the late 1940s, when it was recognized that troposphere-to-stratosphere transport was important for regulating the abundance of water vapor in the stratosphere 147 , stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) has been a subject of great interest in stratospheric science. Recent research into the loss processes of O,...

Evolution of the Aerosol Surface Area from 1985 to 1997

As discussed in Chapter 2, a volcanic eruption can significantly increase the stratospheric aerosol surface area density (SAD) of the stratosphere. Figure 6.1 shows two views of the evolution of the lower stratospheric SAD between 1985 and 1997. Between 1985 and mid-1991 the lower-stratospheric SAD gradually decreased from 3 to 1 pm' cm as the aerosol from the eruptions of El Chichon in 1982 and Nevado del Ruiz in November 1985 was flushed from the stratosphere. The eruption of Nevado del Ruiz...

Terms and Definitions

Activation energy The minimum kinetic energy possessed by the reactants in a bimolecular reaction in order for a collision to result in a reaction. See Equation (2.10) and accompanying discussion. adiabatic A thermodynamic process occurring at constant entropy and thus without gain or loss of heat. In the atmosphere such a process conserves potential temperature and potential vorticity. association reaction A reaction that involves the association of two atoms or molecules to form a single...

Stratospheric Wind Velocity

Figure 7.3 Column O, versus equivalent latitude averaged over October I to 15. 1979, 1992, and 1996. Equivalent latitude is calculated from NCEP balanced winds on the 465 K potential temperature surface. Column O, measurements are version 7 Nimbus 7 TOMS data for 1979 and 1992 and EPTOxMS data for 1996. In the rest of this chapter we discuss the physical processes that lead to the formation of the ozone hole. We will initially focus on the Antarctic, and then turn our attention to polar O, loss...

Ciooci o710

Provides an efficient mechanism to convert CIO to CI. The result is a high QJ JCIJ ratio, and consequently a conversion of CI, to HC1 at a rate of several tenths of a part per billion by volume per day 267,2681. Other research has pointed out that the reaction between OH and CIO to produce HQ (reaction (4.13)) might also be important 1269 . Combined with the slow formation of ClONO, due to the low abundance of NO, (and therefore the slow formation rate of NO,), the formation of HQ dominates the...