List of Figures, Tables and Boxes viii

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations xiii

Foreword by Ambassador John Ashton xv

Introduction 1

Michael C. MacCracken and John C. Topping, Jr

Part 1 The Potential for Rapid Changes to the Weather and Climate 7

Introduction to Part 1 8

Michael C. MacCracken

1 Ten Reasons Why Climate Change May be More Severe than

Projected 11

A. Barrie Pittock

2 Potential Increased Hurricane Activity in a Greenhouse Warmed

World 29

Judith A. Curry

3 Potential Effects of Weather Extremes and Climate Change on

Human Health 39

Devra Lee Davis and John C. Topping, Jr

Part 2 The Potential for Rapid Melting of Ice and Amplification of Sea Level Rise 45

Introduction to Part 2 46

Robert W. Corell

4 Changes in Polar Sea Ice Coverage Claire L. Parkinson

5 Changes in the Greenland Ice Sheet and Implications for Global

Sea Level Rise 63

Eric Rignot

6 Why Predicting West Antarctic Ice Sheet Behavior is So Hard: What

We Know, What We Don't Know and How We Will Find Out 75

Robert Bindschadler

Part 3 The Potential for Dramatic Changes in Coastal Regions 81

Introduction to Part 3 82

The Honorable Tom Roper

7 The Potential for Significant Impacts on Chesapeake Bay from

Global Warming 85

Michael S. Kearney

8 The Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast: Human Development Patterns, Declining Ecosystems and Escalating Vulnerability to Storms and Sea Level Rise 101 Virginia Burkett

9 Threats and Responses Associated with Rapid Climate Change in Metropolitan New York 119 Malcolm Bowman, Douglas Hill, Frank Buonaiuto, Brian Colle,

Roger Flood, Robert Wilson, Robert Hunter and Jindong Wang

10 Increasing the Resilience of Our Coasts: Coastal Collision Course of Rising Sea Level, Storms, Coastal Erosion and Development 143 Bruce C. Douglas and Stephen P. Leatherman

11 Preparing and Protecting American Families from the Onslaught of Catastrophe 153 Admiral James M. Loy

Part 4 The End of Evolution? The Potential for Rapid Changes in Ecosystems 159

Introduction to Part 4 160

Paul C. Pritchard

12 Where Will Ecosystems Go? 163 Anthony C. Janetos

13 Increasing Vulnerability of Alaska's Boreal Forest as a Result of

Climate Warming and the Changing Fire Regime 175

Eric S. Kasischke and F. Stuart Chapin III

14 Polar Bears in a Warming Arctic 193 Andrew E. Derocher

Part 5 The Potential for Accelerating Action to Limit Climate Change 205

Introduction to Part 5 206

William A. Nitze

15 International Action to Buffer Against the Rapid Onset of Climate Change 211 Sir Crispin Tickell

16 A Moral and Profitable Path to Climate Stabilization 217 John C. Topping, Jr and Erin Frey

17 Moving Toward Climate Stabilization: Iceland's Example 231 President of Iceland Olafur Ragnar Grimsson

18 Climate Impacts in the Developing World: A Case Study of the

Small Island States 237

Nasir Khattak

19 Stimulating a Clean Energy Revolution 241 Christopher Flavin

20 Recycling Energy to Reduce Costs and Mitigate Climate Change 247 Thomas R. Casten

21 Addressing Climate Change: Religious Perspectives and Initiatives 259 Denis Hayes and panelists

22 Climate Solutions on Today's Campuses: How Today's Students

Must Drive a Modern Industrial Revolution 269

Dan Worth

23 Strategies for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions: The Role of Greenhouse Gas Offsets 283 Alexia Kelly

Appendices 291

List of Contributors 293

Acknowledgements 311

Index 317

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Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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