Wise Adaptation

In order to react on the impacts of climate change, both current and predicted, adaptation measures can be implemented. Several elements are part of a wise adaptation, which is effective and efficient, subdivided in technological, policy and socio-economic perspectives.

Elements from a technological perspective:

• Utilisation of a diverse range of options, both in the technical, legal, economic and social fields or focussing on preventive adaptation measures in order to minimise damage and responsive ones that prepare the response after damage. In wise adaptation it is important to combine and utilise adaptation measures according to time, place and opportunity

• Utilisation of observation results. Due to uncertainties in future projections reliance on observed developments is also a valuable base for defining adaptation measures;

• Development of human resources;

• Realisation of low-vulnerability systems with flexible response capacity, which improves the character and mitigates the vulnerability of various systems to the impact of climate change.

Elements from a policy perspective:

• Adoption of early warning systems that utilise monitoring in order to predict extreme events and reduce damage;

• Utilisation of both long-term and short-term perspectives;

• Mainstreaming adaptation by incorporating it in existing policies and plans;

• Cooperation and coalition with other organisations;

• Promotion of co-benefit-type adaptation, which offers the society an extra benefit from the adaptation measure and does not only realise its own adaptation objective.

Elements from a socio-economic perspective:

• Promotion of regional vulnerability assessments in order to successfully implement scientifically rational supplements and reviews of programs;

• Improve adaptive capacity using insurance and other economic systems;

• Promotion of voluntary initiatives.

Possible options for adaptation measures for each sector are defined in Table 1.1.

Table 1.1 Examples of options for adaptation measures

Technology options

Policy option

Social and economic options

Technology

Information and

Legal systems

Human resources

Social systems

Economic systems

knowledge

Food

Development and introduction

Collection and

- Development of

- Provision of

Reconsideration of

- Utilisation of

of high temperature tolerant

organisation of

mechanisms to

information and

irrigation customs

mutual aid

varieties

information from

support and advise

human resources

as a result of

systems (quick

- Shift in cultivation areas

promoters of

on adaptation

development to

changes in

provision of

- Change in cultivation methods

agricultural

measures for

promoters of

cropping seasons

damage

- Controlling feedlot

improvement

elderly farmers

agricultural

and delayed

information and

environments

- Adjustment of

improvement

drainage seasons

using the

- Shift in aquaculture areas and

fishing seasons to

and farming

information in

development of aquaculture

suit fish migration

advisors

compensation

technologies

routes and fishing

claims)

ground formation

Water envi

- Introduction of raw water

- Overall evaluation

- Improvement of

- Raising of water

- Intensification of

- Indirect controls

ronment

transmission and discharge

of the

water supply

saving

farmland and

using economic

and

control systems as drought

characteristics of

- Restriction of deep

awareness

reallocation of

instruments such

resources

measure

sources of

groundwater

water rights

as a levy system

- Desalination of water

drinking water

pumping to control

- Introduction of

in regulations for

- Use of treated sewage water

and the selection

land subsidence

mechanisms or

the use of deep

and rainwater

of suitable water

regional flexible

ground water

- Prevention measures against

purification

transfer of water

groundwater salinisation

processes

during droughts

- Eutrophication control

measures (blue green algae

fences)

- Dissimulation of water saving

devices

Technology options

Policy option

Social and economic options

Technology

Information and knowledge

Legal systems

Human resources

Social systems

Economic systems

Natural -

- Designation and preservation of

-Development of

-Reconsideration and

- Training of

- Consensus

ecosystems

réfugia

monitoring

new designation of

volunteers with

building among

- Establishing corridors

systems for each

nature preserves and

knowledge and

relevant entities

- Conversion of artificial cedar

ecosystem

national parks

skills who are

regarding the

forest to natural forests

- Regulations of

able to cooperate

identification of

- Early detection and prevention of

artificial

in monitoring

and response to

pine wilt

transplantation and

- Awareness

climate change

- Installation of deer fences in

fish release

raising regarding

impacts

alpine regions

Restrictions on tourist

treading pressure

- Reduction in nutritive salts and

activities

reduction on

other environmental load

alpine flora and

substances

in wetlands, protection of coral reefs

Disaster

Alterations in architectural style

- Production and

- Changes and

Implementation of

- Establishment of

- Establishment of

prevention

- Maintenance and improvement of

distribution of

regulation of land use

training and

voluntary

a system of

and large

coastal protection facilities

hazard maps

based on disaster

education of

organisations

inundation

coastal

- Enhancement of drainage systems

- Provision of

prevention (relocating

disaster

for disaster

insurance for

cities

- Development super levees with

information (web) of housing.

prevention

prevention

resients

multiple fonction

- Upgrading

restrictions on

- Establishment of

- Effective utilisation of existing

monitoring

constructions in

funds and

facilities and extension of their

systems

danger zones)

subsidies for

lifetime

(long-term.

Integrated coastal

post disaster

- Comprehensive sediment control

real-time)

zone management

restoration

in rivers and coast

- Reorganisation of dam systems

Technology options

Policy option

Social and economic options

Technology

Information and knowledge

Legal systems

Human resources

Social systems

Economic systems

Health

- Development of vaccines and new

- Production and

- Establishment of

-Capacity

- Support for

medicines for infectious diseases

distribution of

institutions and

development for

initiatives at

- of vector mosquitos, larval control

health care guide

regulations for heat

prevention

workplaces

- Suspending the emissions of air

manuals for heat

stroke prevention

planning for the

and schools

pollutants

stroke - Thorough surveillance of

- Care for elderly households

control of vector mosquitos - Raising of public

infectious diseases

awareness on

- Surveys on the

health care

incidence and

distribution of

vectors

Citizens and

- Strengthening buildings to

- Provision and

- Heat related

-Implementation

- Establishment

- Reduction of the

urban life

mitigate damage caused by

utilisation of

countermeasures for

of e-training and

of voluntary

extreme weather

disasters

hazard maps

the elderly

education of

organisations

risk using

- Utilisation of heat- blocking and

- Provision and

- 'Cool Biz' campaigns

disaster

for disaster

weather

heat-insulating paints and

utilisation of heat - Day light saving time

prevention

prevention

derivates

building materials

stroke alert

- Removal of suitable condition for

information

emergence of vector mosquitos

and harmful insects

- Promoting tree planting

Source: Committee on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Research (2008)

Source: Committee on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Research (2008)

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