Type of Water

Five water types are distinguished, each of them with its own characteristics.

4.4.1.1 Peak Storage

A peak storage stores temporarily superfluous water, resulting of extreme precipitation. The storage prevents other areas from water annoyance. The water system does not have the capacity to discharge all the precipitation and the peak storage stores temporarily the surplus. The storage functions year round (Fig. 4.11).

Fig. 4.11 Peak storage (Source: Hoogheemraadschap Rijnland, 2003)

4.4.1.2 Seasonal Storage

The seasonal storage stores water in wet periods. In dry periods the storage functions as a buffer. The buffer prevents water system from the need to let water in from another area, which water is most of the time of less quality (Fig. 4.12).

Fig. 4.12 Seasonal storage (Source: Hoogheemraadschap Rijnland, 2003) 4.4.1.3 Calamity Storage

Storage in times of calamity takes place in urgency flood plains. These areas are pointed out beforehand and are ready to receive the water if necessary. The storage of water in the calamity basins prevents breakthroughs of dikes elsewhere (Fig. 4.13).

Fig. 4.12 Seasonal storage (Source: Hoogheemraadschap Rijnland, 2003) 4.4.1.3 Calamity Storage

Storage in times of calamity takes place in urgency flood plains. These areas are pointed out beforehand and are ready to receive the water if necessary. The storage of water in the calamity basins prevents breakthroughs of dikes elsewhere (Fig. 4.13).

Fig. 4.13 Calamity storage (Source: Hoogheemraadschap Rijnland, 2003)

4.4.1.4 High Tides

Storage of river water in the outer marches prevents the breech of dikes along the river. The water is so high that it flows over the summer dike. The water levels are the result from melting water or precipitation (Fig. 4.14).

Fig. 4.14 High tides (Source: Hoogheemraadschap Rijnland, 2003)

Fig. 4.14 High tides (Source: Hoogheemraadschap Rijnland, 2003)

4.4.1.5 Groundwater Annoyance

If there is a surplus of groundwater there is no surface water that needs to be stored. The soil needs to store the water. Due to this storage the distance between ground-

water level and ground level becomes less. The slight drainage causes annoyance (Fig. 4.15).

Fig. 4.15 Groundwater annoyance (Source: Hoogheemraadschap Rijnland, 2003)

Fig. 4.15 Groundwater annoyance (Source: Hoogheemraadschap Rijnland, 2003)

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