Sectors that May be Affected by Climate Change

The strategy should include focus on what can actually be done within each sector in the next 10-year period. This means it must be scientifically, technically and socio-economically relevant to launch a specific initiative within this period.

The following sectors are distinguished:

1. Coastal management: It is expected that climate adaptation in connection with the coast and ports will be necessary as a consequence of increasing sea levels and more storms, if the current safety levels and operational conditions are to be upheld. Renewal, dismantlement or renovation of dykes or port installations may be necessary Moreover, ongoing adaptation of disaster and storm flooding contingency plans is needed as well as information on conditions that may affect planning of coastal construction projects in future risk areas;

2. Construction: Increased focus on the indoor climate will be necessary, in particular on temperature and humidity conditions. To support adaptation measures to reduce extreme indoor temperatures during heat waves, guidelines for new construction techniques may be needed. Moreover, a compulsory labelling scheme may be introduced for small individual cooling facilities that can be set up at short notice. Drainage systems for roads should be considered in view of the risk of increased precipitation intensity. Increasing temperatures will increase the need for securing the safety installations on railways. As regards increased wind velocity, a risk analysis of possible windfalls onto roads and railways must be performed;

3. Water supply: Climate adaptation may entail restructuring water extraction, taking future groundwater resources as well as water flow and the quality of water courses and aquatic areas into consideration. Set targets are needed for a planned restructuring of water extraction so that it is possible to determine:

• The size of water volumes that will have to be redirected;

• To which areas it will be possible to redirect these volumes.

4. Energy supply: A change in the energy supply is expected including increased production of renewable energy, and changes in consumer patterns including less heating in the winter and more cooling in the summer;

5. Agriculture and forestry: A longer growing season will make it possible to introduce new crops and to increase yields. Moreover, changes in precipitation patterns are expected. Increases in the numbers and types of pests are also expected to entail an increase and change in the use of pesticides. At the same time a change in the precipitation pattern will change the need for drainage and irrigation. The present move towards natural forestry in the state forests will be reassessed with a view to either accelerating or adjusting the process;

6. Fisheries: the industry is expected to develop new tools, fishing methods and vessels. Adaptation and development of new management systems are expected within the existing international cooperation in management of fisheries and marine eco-systems. It is also expected that there will be a need to restructure fish and shellfish breeding in both salt and freshwater;

7. Nature and nature management: Several measures are taken to ensure that nature and the environment are healthy and resilient to a changing climate. Amongst the measures are the conversion of selected river valleys into natural wetlands with extensive management cultivation, efforts to curb oxygen depletion in the seas and fragmentation of nature, as well as activities to prevent invasive species;

8. Planning: Planning recommendations, identifications or reservations for green corridors or location of buildings and other constructions for instance to create innovative building techniques to deal with flood risk (Fig. 1.37) will be done either in the so-called 'Oversigt over statslige interesser i kommuneplanlwgnin-gen' (Overview of central-government interests in municipal planning) or as a part of the regional development plans. Relevant risk analyses in the form of risk maps will be an important decision-making tool in planning.

9. Human health: Adjusting public health emergency, prevention and treatment services, as well as adjusting the monitoring of contagious diseases could be relevant in the face of more frequent heat waves, and other health risks linked to climate change (infection, allergies etc.);

10. Emergency and rescue services: Emergency and rescue services have been adapted after the violent storm in 1999 and storm surges and floods of recent years. For the period 2007-2010 the capacity and scope of central-government emergency and rescue services will be examined. An important aspect of this examination will be weather incidents, seen in relation to risks and threats as well as in relation to the capacity of the individual municipal rescue services;

Fig. 1.37 Buildings adjusted to Increased sea level and storm risk on the island of R0m0 (Source: Regeringen, 2008)

Fig. 1.37 Buildings adjusted to Increased sea level and storm risk on the island of R0m0 (Source: Regeringen, 2008)

11. Insurance-related aspects: Climate change will prompt insurance companies to adjust premiums upwards and/or make coverage exceptions. Similarly, it may become relevant to develop new financial instruments for risk transferral between non-life insurance companies and the remaining financial sector.

The responsibility for ensuring the necessary sector-specific adaptation to climate change will lie with the relevant ministries. Since adapting to climate change will often be a crosscutting effort like 'agriculture-the environment-nature' or 'health-building and construction-the environment', there will be a need for coordination between ministries. This will be ensured through the cross-ministerial coordination group and the knowledge centre, which have been proposed for the purpose.

1.5.3 Cross-Cutting Initiatives 1.5.3.1 Targeted Information Efforts

The government will establish an internet-portal for climate adaptation. The portal will allow easy access to the most up-to-date knowledge within the area and it will be developed so that authorities, businesses, specialists and private individuals can use it. The portal will therefore help underpin spontaneous adaptation.

The establishment of an internet-portal on climate adaptation will be the pivot for increased information efforts. In order to provide Danish society with a possibility to adapt to climate change in good time, easy-accessible information concerning the expected change must be available.

This internet-portal will be the point of access to information about trends for a number of climate variables such as temperature, precipitation, wind conditions etc. Similarly, there will be access to a series of oceanographic data such as mean sea levels, storm surge levels, content of oxygen and sea temperatures. A number of decisions dependent on climate development share the same requirement for information, such as information about terrain levels and groundwater conditions, so this information will also be made available on the internet-portal on a regular basis.

By far the majority of this information is related to geographic matters. Therefore, there will be a need to establish a common geographic basis that will ensure efficient comparison and use of data across geographic and administrative borders.

1.5.3.2 Research Strategy

The government will develop model tools for socio-economic assessments of initiatives in the climate adaptation area and establish a coordinating unit for research in climate adaptation.

In recent years there has therefore been increasing focus on the climate question within the Danish research environment, and a number of competent Danish research environments have been established. By far the majority of previous research efforts have been aimed at understanding and describing the changed climate conditions, including possibilities for limiting climate change caused by human activity. Limited research has been carried out on the challenges linked to adaption and preparation Danish society for the climate change of the future.

Therefore, there is a need for climate research to increase its focus on the question of how we adapt. Adapting to climate change must be made an integral part of the remaining research, so that research into climate adaptation contributes significantly to more coherent climate research.

1.5.3.3 Future Organisation

With the strategy for climate adaptation, the government encourages all sectors to unite in the efforts. It is therefore proposed that a cross-ministerial coordination group be established, in addition to the coordination unit for research into climate adaptation mentioned above, with a science centre functioning as secretariat to make sure the initiatives of the coordination group are realised.

Cross-Ministerial Coordination Group for Climate Adaptation

The overall objective of the coordination group is to ensure that the government's climate adaptation strategy is implemented. Additionally, the coordination group is to safeguard a common basis for cooperation and coordination across sectors and authorities. Relevant central-government authorities and a representative from each municipality, region and from the coordination unit will participate in the coordination group.

Knowledge Centre for Climate Adaptation

In order to ensure that the initiatives of the coordination group are realised, it is proposed that a knowledge centre for climate adaptation be established to function as a secretariat for the initiatives. One of the centre's important tasks will be to provide information.

Coordination Unit for Research on Climate Adaptation

The coordination unit is to ensure that the synergy between existing and new projects is exploited, and is to contribute to promoting crosscutting collaboration and knowledge sharing between research environments.

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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