In the city of London, at the Isle of Dogs climate problems like river flooding, heat island effect and water shortages converge. In the design for the area (Fig. 7.29) measures are proposed to minimise or reduce these effects. Water basins and enough public spaces are realised and in the urban design shade is created.
In and around buildings (Fig. 7.30) an attractive public space, with many cafes and vegetation is designed. In order to guarantee a pleasant climate during hot summers shopping and leisure is realised half under ground level.
In high rise buildings shade is provided with lamellae and balconies and materials, which are absorbing heat minimal are used. Inside the buildings energy saving leads to as low as possible ambient heat gain (Fig. 7.31).
7.5.3 Urban Expansion: Isle of Sheppey
The subjects that are important with respect to a changing climate in the expansion plan for the Isle of Sheppey are river flooding, reduction of biodiversity, infrastructure, like bridges, under threat, the heat island effect and the availability of water. At an urban level dealing with flood risk is managed (Fig. 7.32).
The most vulnerable functions and common amenities are planned where flood risk is lowest. The defence against floods is soft and created in different steps. The functions at different places are adjusted to the risk profile. Lowest risk areas are developed with the highest densities and existing buildings are separated and individually protected. The urban water system is over dimensioned in order to collect rainwater and large spaces are designed to store temporary water during floods.
In the design, much space is created to keep biodiversity at the same level as previously or improve it (Fig. 7.33). The ecological networks are used to decrease the vulnerability of the system and increase the biodiversity by connecting the ecological networks. If certain areas are under pressure a flexible approach can be chosen, where the function changes in time, say from a playground initially to a nature reserve and water storage area later on. In addition, some species use linear elements 'ecological corridors' alongside existing and new urban structures.
Important functions are realised above the highest imaginable flood level and the functions at ground level are lifted in order to minimise the effects of a flood (Fig. 7.34).
7.6 Concluding Remarks
The feasibility of adaptation measures does not only depend on good research, designs and plans. The economic, social and institutional complexity plays an important - may be decisive - role (Buuren et al., 2007).
The technical difficulties and challenges of realisation of measures are determined by the nature of technical amenities, the technical uncertainties around realisation and the probability assessment of the proposed measures and risks. The measures can be scored on a scale between hardly possible to realise and very simple realisation.
The social complexity is met by this set of values, which are accepted by stakeholders at the time the measure is to be implemented. The following factors play a role: number of involved partners, the amount of different standards and insights partners have, how controversial the measure is and recalls hinder and the necessity
to reach consensus and converge. Measures can be scored on the scale of consensus: from complicated to easy.
If the institutional complexity of implementing the measure increases this needs to adjust the official bureaucratic organisations, existing procedures and arrangements. Increased cooperation between institutional domains, which were separated before, is necessary. The tension between existing practice and structures increases. Institutional complexity is expressed by a confrontation between institutional rules, organisational adjustments, cooperation and the level of innovation compared with existing arrangements. The institutional scoring card to realise adaptation measures is between radical institutional changes to hardly any change required.
Buuren et al., (2007) states that the social complexity is more important than the institutional and technical complexity. Scoring and comparing the measures delivers insights into the difficulty of realising the different adaptation measures.
BACA (2007); Long term initiatives for flood risk environments; Aquaterra-Conference, 7-9
February 2007; Amsterdam Buuren, A. van, Edelenbos, J., Eshuis, J., Klijn, E.-H., Nooteboom, S., Teisman, G. and Grasmus University Rotterdam, Department of Public Administration, Chair Complex Decision-Making and Process Management (2007); Feasibility of adaptation options; in: Routeplanner naar een klimaatbestendig Nederland, Adaptatiestrategieen; Den Haag, pp. 68-73 Drunen, M. van and Lasage, R. (2007); Klimaatverandering in stedelijke gebieden; Routeplanner,
ARK-programma, Den Haag Gilbert, B. (2007); Climate Change: The Impact for London; London
Herk, S. van (2007); Urban flood management; Aquaterra-Conference, 7-9 Februry 2007; Amsterdam
IPCC (2007); Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Working Group I Contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report; IPCC; Cambridge University Press; New York Katschner, L. (2007); University of Kassel; Problems and policy solutions in Germany; lecture op de studiedag Hot Places, Cool Spaces, www.klimaatvoorruimte.nl, Amaterdam Klap, K. (2007); DOLLARD21, A Future Design for a Safe, Sustainable and Attractive Landscape of the Eemsdelta Region; Wageningen University and Research centre; Wageningen Klimaat voor Ruimte (2007); Verslag van de studiedag Hot Places, Cool Spaces;www. klimaatvoorruimte.nl
Klinke, A. and Renn, O. (2006); Systemic Risks as Challenge for Policy Making in Risk Governance; In: FQS, Vol. 7, No. 1, Art. 33 - January Kuypers, V.H.M. (2007); Pressures on the Delta, Case Haarlemmermeer; Aquaterra-Conference,
7-9 February; Amsterdam Land Use Consultants in Association with Oxford Brookes University, CAG Consultants and Gardiner and Theobald (2006); Adapting to Climate Change Impacts - A Good Practice Guide for Sustainable Communities; Defra; London Ministeries van VROM, V&W, LNV, EZ en IPO, VNG en UvW (2007a); Maak ruimte voor kli-
maat! Nationale adaptatiestrategie - de interbestuurlijke notitie; VROM; Den Haag Ministerie van VROM, DGR/20072007107884 (2007b); Reactie op motie van Bochove en Depla over de ruimtelijke gevolgen van een 'worst-case klimaatscenario; brief van de minister; Den Haag
MNP (2007); Nederland Later, tweede duurzaamheidsverkenning; MNP, Bilthoven Nickson, A. (2007); Preparing London for Inevitable Climate Change; Lecture on Hot places, cool spaces; Amsterdam
Pelt, F. van, Vries, W. de and Thoele, H. (2006); Ontwerpen aan de Zuidplaspolder; Driehoek RZG Zuidplas; Den Haag
Pirard, P., Vandentorren, <fnm>S., Pascal, M., Laaidi, K., LeTertre, A., Cassoudou, S., Ledrans, M., Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Département Sauté Environnement, Saint Maurice, France (2005); Summary of the Mortality Impact Assessment of the 2003 Heat Wave in France;Eurosurveillance, 10, 7-9 Renn (2002); Risk Classification and Risk Management Strategies. Handouts at the seminar "Risk and Uncertainty", Oslo. See also http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/risk/session1_1_en.pdf Robine, J.M. Cheung, S.L, Roy, S. le, Oyen, H. van and Herrmann, F.R. (2007); Report on Excess Mortality in Europe During Summer 2003; EU Community Action Program for Public Health;2003 Heat Wave Project Roggema, R.E. (2007); Ruimtelijke impact van adaptatie aan klimaatverandering in Groningen;
Provincie Groningen; Groningen Roggema, R.E. (2008); Tegenhouden of Meebewegen, aadaptatie aan klimaatverandering en de ruimte; WEKA; Amsterdam Schotten, C.G.J., Velde, R.J. van de, Scholten, H.J., Boersma, W.T., Hilferink, M., Ransijn, M. and Zut, R. (1997); De Ruimtescanner, geintegreerd ruimtelijk informatiesysteem voor de simulatie van toekomstig ruimtegebruik; RIVM rapport 711901002, MNP, Bilthoven Trouw (2007); Interview met burgemeester Leers; januari
Tweede Kamer (2006); Motie van Bochove/Depla; 22 december 2006, TK 30 800 XI, nr. 49; Den Haag
Chapter 8 Landscape 2.0
Abstract In order to anticipate on climate change and to adapt better and better to it the landscape en urban plans will have to implement adaptation measures in the designs or the planning will need to be adaptation-inclusive. These new typology of plans for spatial programmes and projects will emerge if changes in society are rapid and there is a need to anticipate on changes, which are foreseen on the long-term. A new landscape evolves in which people work together and anticipate on changes in a network-based way. Especially, in spatial planning and design the changes and adaptation measures will be incorporated. Because of the fact that long-term developments are unpredictable, the spatial planning no longer defines end images of the future but aims to define strategic interventions, which steer and initiate future developments in a more resilient direction. A new spatial planning paradigm emerges.
Reviewed by Prof. Dr. Pavel Kabat, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Earth System Sciences, the Netherlands
R. Roggema, Adaptation to Climate Change: A Spatial Challenge, 319
DOI 10.1007/978-1-4020-9359-3_8, © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009
Ten years ago I was in Patagonia. Ushuaia, the southernmost city in the world, consists of one main street, full of souvenir shops, meant for the rich Americans, who leave their cruise ships for one afternoon to shop the shops empty. In the town contains some side streets also, less fancy, but where some special places can be found. One of the houses in such a side street, a somewhat large living room of an ordinary family house, contains some computers. 'Internet-cafe' was written in amateurish letters on the façade. Some friends of mine had an e-mail-address already. Thus, this seemed to be an excellent opportunity to send them a message from the other side of the world. It was possible, the strange lady of the house told me. After half an hour of typewriting I asked the lady how I could receive answers to my just send messages. She answered me to return two days later to find out if any messages were delivered on her home computer. Two days later several friends had checked their mailboxes and answered me.
Tomorrow, I leave for China. The trip is bringing me to Guiyang, a provincial town of 3.5 billion people (Fig. 8.1). The blackberry travels with me. After touch down in Guiyang I send an sms-message back home that the travel was ok and I landed safely at my destination. In the city I am able to read my e-mail and if necessary answer them. In case of an emergency they can reach me by telephone.
With a blackberry I am ages behind, because real world travellers is on the Internet permanently, keeps up b-logs and is part of several networks at the same time. Everyone is not only consumer of news, messages or products, but becomes a provider also by supplying information in the net, which may be used by others. This free world of exchange, where everyone is consumer and producer at the same time is going to effect the spatial lay out of the country.
The adaptation to climate change and the sustainable energy supply are developments, which might cause problems on the long-term. If fossil resources are depleted in 50 years from now and the sea level and temperature is changed in 100 years fundamentally, society needs to have adapted itself. Because the changes are fundamental and are expected to be irreversible, it is necessary to take measures now. These measures need to be capable to initiate developments, which are desired on the long-term, at short-term. Existing planning methods - which mostly fix the future on a term of 10 years - and the existing political timeframe of four to 8 years need to be connected with the far future (Fig. 8.2). A new planning and design paradigm will emerge, which - in order to be successful - needs to connect to developments in society. And the new paradigm shall consist of the characteristics of an Internet society (Toffler, 2006) and Web 2.0 (Eye, 2007).
The new net -Web 2.0 - is all about connecting. Aslander (Eye, 2007) states that the connection of people, ideas and information will be the new economy, in which hierarchical organisations no longer are leading, but where flexible network organisations become the standard. In this future it is more important to be a connector than the owner of knowledge or raw materials. Internet becomes a forum of exchange -via web-logs and on Hyves - instead a collection providers on websites. This new economy it is less important to make money out of your services, but it is all about the value that you contribute to something else: the economy of giving. Give and share leads to an endless return. Money is handy, it is limited also: you can give it away only once, while knowledge stays forever and can be divided endlessly (NRC Next, 2007).
The Internet revolution takes place now. After the transition form an agricultural towards an industrial society, the next revolution is becoming a fact (Toffler, 2006). In the old days it was important to have power over labour and posses land, later it was decisive who had power over machines or had an entrance to oil. This changes radically. Internet is free for all. Not the power counts, but the added value one is capable to supply. The exchange of information leads to minimal power for internet-providers - if they are comparable with the old factories after all. Not possession decides, but the immaterial contribution to the net end the exchange of information will be.
Was this article helpful?