The review ends with an outline of future challenges. In order to realise wise adaptation it is essential to enhance research and monitoring of climate change impacts and vulnerability in each sector and each region. Highly reliable projections are needed for future temperatures, precipitation amounts, precipitation patterns, snowfalls and extreme events. In addition the adaptation viewpoint needs to be incorporated into various policies, like city planning, urban renewal or redevelopment of obsolete infrastructure. Those adaptation measures, which should be implemented immediately because the impact of climate change has already become obvious to these sectors, need to be selected. An ongoing review structure needs to be introduced, which follows changes and is able to anticipate immediately if necessary. Periodically, information and communication about adaptation to climate change can be derived from these reviews. Further research will still be necessary on the following topics:
• Understanding the climate change impact mechanisms;
• Development of methods to predict climate change impacts, reduction of uncertainties;
• Development is required for vulnerability assessment methodologies and tools;
• Technological research topics include: developing crop varieties that are resistant to high temperatures, appropriately shift cropping seasons and developing aquaculture technology to water temperatures, research on new water supply, developing technologies for converting artificial forests into natural forests and developing vaccines and new remedies for infectious diseases;
• Policy research includes research on legal restrictions at times of drought and the revision of conventional and designated water rights, research on how adaptation should be implemented based on land-use regulations and research of methodologies for the development of volunteers to conduct monitoring;
• Social and economic research topics include research on the social mechanisms to incorporate adaptation measures, the insurance system as mechanism, to diversify and transfer risk and on consensus-building methodologies to promote adaptation measures.
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