Contents

1 Create Space for Climate! 1

1.1 Climate Change 2

1.2 The Dutch Approach 4

1.2.1 Dutch Climate Scenarios 4

1.2.2 The Dutch Adaptation Strategy 6

1.2.3 The Dutch Adaptation Agenda 16

1.3 The British Approach 17

1.3.1 UK-Climate Scenarios 18

1.3.2 Risk Management 18

1.3.3 Social and Cultural Scenarios 23

1.3.4 Built Environment 23

1.3.5 Urban Water Management 25

1.3.6 Energy Supply 26

1.3.7 Other Research Themes 27

1.3.8 Conclusion 27

1.4 Spanish Approach 29

1.4.1 PNACC 29

1.4.2 Implementation Through Work Programmes 30

1.4.3 Spatial Planning and Construction 34

1.4.4 Accents in the Spanish Adaptation Strategy 35

1.5 Climate Adaptation Strategy of Denmark 35

1.5.1 Objective of the Adaptation Strategy 36

1.5.2 Sectors that May be Affected by Climate Change 37

1.5.3 Cross-Cutting Initiatives 39

1.5.4 Spatial Planning 41

1.5.5 Character of the Danish Approach 41

1.6 Wise Adaptation to Climate Change, Japan 41

1.6.1 Impacts of Climate Change in Japan 42

1.6.2 Wise Adaptation 47

1.6.3 Future Challenges 51

1.6.4 The Japanese Approach 51

1.7 Finland 52

1.7.1 The Impact of and Adaptation Measures to

Climate Change in Different Sectors 52

1.7.2 Cross-Sectoral Issues 52

1.7.3 The Finnish Strategy 55

1.8 Comparison of Strategies 55

1.9 Conclusions 56

References 57

2 Design Adaptation to Climate Change 59

2.1 Design of a Climate Proof Netherlands 60

2.2 The Role of Spatial Planning 61

2.3 An Innovative Approach 62

2.4 Climate Atlases 62

2.4.1 First Results 67

2.5 Development of Design Principles 70

2.5.1 Meaning for Nature and Agriculture 72

2.5.2 Meaning for Spatial Patterns 73

2.6 The Groningen Case 75

2.6.1 Starting Point Groningen: Two Scenarios 76

2.6.2 Knowledge of Climate 77

2.7 Consequences for Different Functions 80

2.7.1 Nature and Agriculture 80

2.7.2 An Offensive Coastal Defence 84

2.7.3 Urban Developments 86

2.8 Idea-Map Climate Adapted Groningen 87

2.9 Chinese Demonstration Projects 89

2.9.1 The Longhu Project, Chongqing 91

2.9.2 Yu'an and Anjing in Yunyan District, Guiyang 96

2.9.3 Vanke's Stream Valley, Shenzhen 101

2.9.4 Chinese Experience 107

2.10 Chances of a Design Approach 109

2.10.1 Implementation 109

References 110

3 The Coast 113

3.1 Introduction 114

3.2 Dutch Coastal Defence 114

3.2.1 A forever Changing Coastline 114

3.2.2 Dutch Weak Links 116

3.2.3 Integrated Development Perspective for the

South Holland Coast 117

3.2.4 ComCoast 118

3.2.6 Groningen Combinatory of Coastal Defences 131

3.2.7 Attention for Safety 134

3.2.8 The Dutch'Delta Commission' 136

3.2.9 Synthesis 145

3.3 Hamburg - Hafencity 146

3.3.1 Masterplan 146

3.3.2 Dealing with Potential Flooding 147

3.4 Thames Gateway - London 151

3.4.1 Thames Estuary 2100 151

3.4.2 Delivery Plan for the Gateway 152

3.4.3 Element in the Gateway: Thames Barrier 154

3.4.4 A Floating City 156

3.4.5 Three of a Kind 160

3.5 New Orleans 162

3.5.1 Coast 2050 162

3.5.2 US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) 165

3.5.3 State of Louisiana Master Plan 170

3.5.4 The MIR Project 176

3.6 Conclusion 179

References 180

4 Water Management 183

4.1 Water Policies in The Netherlands 184

4.1.1 Risk 184

4.1.2 Water Policy in the 21st Century 185

4.1.3 Dutch National Water Vision 187

4.1.4 Water Safety 187

4.2 SAFER and ELLA Projects 188

4.2.1 ELLA 188

4.2.2 SAFER 190

4.3 Flood Risk 192

4.4 Building a House 193

4.4.1 Type of Water 198

4.4.2 A Japanese Experience 200

4.4.3 Types of Houses 202

4.4.4 Combination of House and Water Typologies 207

4.5 Conclusion 208

References 209

5 Ecology 211

5.1 Introduction 212

5.2 Directives 212

5.2.1 Bird's Directive 213

5.2.2 Habitat Directive 213

5.3 Natura 2000 216

5.4 Dutch Spatial-Ecological Concepts 220

5.4.1 Ecological Main Structure 220

5.4.2 National Landscapes 224

5.5 Effects of Climate Change on Nature 225

5.6 Sensitivity 226

5.7 Dilemma: Strict Rules or Flexibility 230

5.8 Adaptation Strategies 230

5.9 The BRANCH Project 237

5.10 Use of BRANCH Principles in Groningen Province 240

5.11 Climate Buffers 242

5.11.1 River Landscape 244

5.11.2 High Parts of the Netherlands (Higher Sand and

Hilly Landscapes) 246

5.11.3 Lower Parts of the Netherlands

(Lower Peat Landscapes) 246

5.11.4 The Coast, the Wadden and Estuaries

(Estuaries and Dunes) 247

5.12 Conclusion 248

References 250

6 Energy Potentials 253

6.1 Introduction 254

6.1.1 Towards a Sustainable Provision of Energy 254

6.1.2 The Oil Price 255

6.1.3 Predicting the Price of Oil 258

6.1.4 Consequences 258

6.1.5 Capitalisation of Land and Real Estate 260

6.1.6 Implications to Commuters 261

6.1.7 Spatial Solutions 262

6.1.8 Different Energy Resources 263

6.1.9 Sustainable Development 263

6.2 Energy Potential Mapping 264

6.2.1 Background 264

6.2.2 The Methodology of Mapping Energy Potentials 265

6.3 The Local Energy Toolbox 266

6.3.1 Climate and Energy 266

6.3.2 The Sun 267

6.3.3 Electricity 267

6.3.4 Heat 269

6.3.5 Wind 269

6.3.6 Water 271

6.3.7 Biomass and Waste 273

6.3.8 The Underground 275

6.3.9 Exchanging and Cascading Heat and Cold 277

6.4 Example: Energy Potentials of the Province of Groningen 280

6.4.1 Electricity 281

6.4.2 Heat and Cold 282

6.4.3 CO2 Capture 282

6.4.4 An Overlay of Potentials 283

6.4.5 Towards a Sustainable Provincial Plan 285

6.4.6 Outcomes of the Groningen POP Study 285

6.5 Conclusions 285

6.5.1 Considerations 286

References 286

7 The Urban Environment 289

7.1 Introduction 290

7.2 Occupation Strategy 290

7.3 Precipitation 292

7.3.1 Thames Gateway 294

7.3.2 Urban Flood Management in Dordrecht 295

7.3.3 Zuidplaspolder 300

7.3.4 Building with Water in Haarlemmermeer 304

7.4 Heat in the City 305

7.4.1 Non-physical Heat Effects 309

7.5 Good Practices Guide (UK) 309

7.5.1 The Centre of Bedford 310

7.5.2 Isle of Dogs in the City of London 311

7.5.3 Urban Expansion: Isle of Sheppey 313

7.6 Concluding Remarks 315

References 317

8 Landscape 2.0 319

8.1 In Patagonia 320

8.2.1 A New Energy Order? 322

8.2.2 Landscape 2.0 323

8.3 Challenges of Complexity in Planning 324

8.3.1 A Society in Turbulent Circumstances 324

8.3.2 Internet-Economy: The Turbulence Driver 325

8.3.3 The State of Today's Spatial Planning Practice 327

8.3.4 New Environment for Planning: Small

Adjustments Made 328

8.3.5 Increase Resilience 330

8.3.6 Complex Adaptive Systems 331

8.3.7 Typology of Complex Systems 331

8.3.8 Tipping Points 333

8.3.9 A New Design Paradigm, Swarm Planning 335

8.4 The Groningen Case 337

8.4.1 Understanding the System: Mapping Climate and Energy Potentials 340

8.4.2 Improving Resilience: Use of Swarm Planning Paradigm 340

8.4.3 Strategic Interventions: The Groningen Impulses 340

8.4.4 Steer the Swarm 346

8.4.5 The Groningen Case Discussed 346

8.5 Conclusions 348

References 350

Conclusion 353

Index 357

About the Author

Ir. R.E. (Rob) Roggema (1964) is Landscape Architect (Wageningen, 1990) and is an expert on the issues of sustainable development, sustainable energy supply and adaptation to climate change. He developed and used this expertise with several governmental organisations and consultants. Recent years he works for the province of Groningen on strategic questions and complex projects in the field of sustainabil-ity and spatial planning. Among his special interests are the research on the spatial planning of a sustainable energy system in Northern Netherlands - Grounds for Change - and design of a climate proof regional plan for the province of Groningen. Additionally he conducts a PhD-research on the relation between a sustainable energy system, the adaptation to climate change and the spatial impact on the regional lay out at the Technical University in Delft as well as at the Wageningen University and Research Centre. The central question is which new planning concepts are able to connect long-term problems and challenges, like climate change and energy depletion, with short-term spatial planning practice. He has written his first volume on adaptation to climate change and spatial planning: 'Tegenhouden of Meebewegen' (in Dutch). He has won the award for the best theoretical paper during the World Sustainable Building conference in Melbourne, 2008.

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