Built Environment

The development of adaptation strategies for the built environment is based on at the one hand side the climate related risks and impediments in urban areas as well

Fig. 1.24 Urban morphology of Greater Manchester (Source: Walsh et al., 2007)

as the effects on the urban environment. Important issues in the urban area are urban green space and comfort, the level of support strategic planning and urban design can offer and the coherence between mitigation and adaptation. In order to assess the effects of climate change and the adaptation possibilities in the city urban types are characterised in thirteen main categories. These categories are placed on maps for Greater Manchester (Fig. 1.24).

These morphological maps offer a solid basis to assess specific risk analyses and modelling the effects of climate change. For every typology the risk and the effects can turn out differently. Based on this urban morphology and the specific risk- and impact analyses, different strategies are developed for every part of the urban area -in comfort, quality of buildings and urban green space (Fig. 1.25).

The consequences of flooding increase if urban intensity rises. The spatial design is capable of attributing to the way risks are treated, for instance by taking adaptation measures at a local and regional level. To what extend buildings are flood proof is the final chapter in the research.

Heat stress is an important factor for human comfort. Therefore, the future changes in heat stress are projected on a map for the city of Manchester. The map with the level of comfort or discomfort illustrates that the inner city of Manchester becomes in August 2080 hardly liveable (Fig. 1.26).

Green urban space offers shadow and the evaporation of these areas lead to a cooling effect. Because of these functions green space is capable of decreasing heat stress. Moreover, these areas are capable of decreasing the rainwater runoff by infiltration and storage of rainwater in these green spaces. Forest areas contain the highest potential to reduce the heat effect. In the Manchester case this may lead to a decrease of the air temperature with 13.8 °C in 2080. If 10% green space is added in a living area with high density the maximum temperature in 2080 can be moderated to the average level of 1961-1990. The rainwater runoff, which will have increased in Greater Manchester in 2080 with 82%, can be catched by combining

Fig. 1.25 Urban morphology, risk and impact, attention areas and strategies (Source: Walsh et al., 2007)

water storage space with green space. The green space can be seen as a strategic spatial reserve, which can be used in the future to deal with the effects of climate change (Fig. 1.27).

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