Typology of Complex Systems

Systems in general can be subdivided in 4 categories (Wolfram, 2002) (I) closed system, (II) linear feed back systems, (III) systems randomly open to assimilation Simple systems, Less adaptability Lower actor-capacity to Influence resilience Complex systems. More adaptaMity Higher acto-capadty to influence resilience and (IV) non-linear adaptive systems. De Roo (2006) describes the characteristics of class IV systems. These systems are able to behave such as to maximise benefits of stability...

Japanese Experience

Within the Tokyo metropolitan area urbanisation increased rapidly. At the same time rainwater runoff, due to heavy rainfall, increased as well. The basin of the Motoara-river suffered large damages caused by floods. Within Koshigaya Lake Town (Fig. 4.16), a new development, a regulation pond was implemented in order to reduce flood damages (Koshigaya Land Development Office, 2005). The purpose is to create an environment, which is safe for the residents and comfortable (Fig. 4.17). Fig. 4.16...

Combination of House and Water Typologies

Different water circumstances require other types of houses. In the Table 4.1 is shown which combinations are possible. For example, a floating house can be built in the relatively quiet circumstances of a seasonal storage, but to build this house in dynamical and fluctuating situations is not advisable. The slight drainage house is only suitable in situation with a high groundwater level, but will meet problems in any other circumstance. Table 4.1 Matrix of water-house typologies combinations...

References

Noordhoff Point

Bergsma, G.C., Croezen, H.J., Blom, M.J. and Rooijers, F.J. (2006) HetEnergieAgri Clustervoor het Transitie Alternatief (EAC) - in het kader van het Zuiderzeelijn project CE Delft, Delft Capgemini (2006) Onderzoek naar de structuur en het niveau van elektriciteitsprijzen voor Noordwest-Europese grootverbruikers Capgemini Utrecht Dam, A.P. van (2007) Gasunie Gastransport Services (januari 2007) e-mail interview Dienst Landelijk Gebied (DLG) Groningen (2004) Landbouwstructuuronderzoek Groningen -...

Impacts of Climate Change in Japan

The Amonunt Rainfall Japan

The observed and projected impacts of climate change are described for several sectors The impacts on food (agriculture, livestock and fisheries) contain changes in the rice production, Ukikawa symptoms (detached fruit skin and flesh) in mandarin and grapes due to high temperature and delayed seaweed harvests due to a later cooling down of water temperatures in autumn. It is expected that poor ripening of rice increases, a shift northward will take place for apple cultivation lands (Fig. 1.38),...

Wind

Solar Radiation Netherlands

Energy can be reaped from the wind almost everywhere, but in contrast to the sun, geomorphological aspects play an important role in local wind characteristics. A Fig. 6.10 Energy intensity of solar radiation in the Netherlands (KNMI) Fig. 6.10 Energy intensity of solar radiation in the Netherlands (KNMI) generic image of the wind speed can be drawn from maps such as Fig. 6.11. At lower heights impediments of greenery and buildings define wind patterns and its strength, which can locally be...

Urban Flood Management in Dordrecht

The municipality of Dordrecht is partner in the international UFM (Urban Flood Management) project, together with Hamburg and London (Herk, 2007). The objective of the project is to adjust spatial designs to deal with a possible flood. As the Fig. 7.6 Increase of the flexibility of the urban water system and extraordinary buildings (Source Baca Architects, London, 2007) Fig. 7.6 Increase of the flexibility of the urban water system and extraordinary buildings (Source Baca Architects, London,...

Energy Potential Mapping 621 Background

The methodology of energy potential maps evolved during the research process of the Grounds for Change project (Noorman et al., 2006 Roggema et al., 2006a).4 Main aim of this project was to find a sustainable energy system for the Northern Netherlands (Frisia, Groningen and Drenthe) for the year 2035 and the spatial consequences of this. The northern region has always played an important role in the energy provision of the Netherlands during the 19th century large areas of peat were colonised...

Design Adaptation to Climate Change

Abstract The adaptation to climate change is well represented in strategies, policies and the media. It can even be found in sectoral measures, but integrated designs for adapted spatial plans are hardly available. This is curious, because adaptation to climate change needs to be implemented and realised mainly through spatial patterns and lay out. Several reasons may cause this. It may be plausible that the subject is just recently put on the political agenda, which makes it just a matter of...

Isle of Dogs in the City of London

Carte Quartiers Roche Sur Yon

In the city of London, at the Isle of Dogs climate problems like river flooding, heat island effect and water shortages converge. In the design for the area (Fig. 7.29) measures are proposed to minimise or reduce these effects. Water basins and enough public spaces are realised and in the urban design shade is created. In and around buildings (Fig. 7.30) an attractive public space, with many cafes and vegetation is designed. In order to guarantee a pleasant climate during hot summers shopping...

Chinese Experience

Looking at the three Chinese projects the first element to be mentioned is hat these three projects are sustainable building demonstration projects. This simple fact makes it logical that in the plans a relatively big attention is for the adaptation to the effects of climate change. However, the majority of the developments probably show a lack of attention to this subject. Fig. 2.41 The water, electricity and sewage solutions (Source Bing et al., 2008b) Fig. 2.41 The water, electricity and...