Share of recycled input percent

Figure 12.1 Current mix of recycled and virgin inputs of selected products (EPA, 2006c) As figure 12.1 indicates, for corrugated cardboard, approximately two-thirds consist of recycled material. The portion of recycled paper in new paper products is in the wide range of between 10 and 50 percent. It strongly depends on the quality needs of the target product. Thus, the choice of the paper quality for a certain application also strongly influences GHG effects. In the case of aluminum or steel...

Use of composting CO2 as greenhouse fertilizer

If compost born CO2 could be applied in production processes instead of fossil derived carbon dioxide, a net reduction of the GHG balance would be possible. As was mentioned a total of about 150 kg CO2 is emitted per ton of compost raw material. Thus in a facility with a capacity of 100,000 t annually, about 15,000 t of carbon dioxide are produced. In Germany CO2 from composting totals about one Mio t of carbon dioxide, which could be used instead of fossil derived CO2 in industrial or related...

Current policies promoting biofuels

Most biofuels are still more costly than fossil fuels and thus production has to be encouraged e.g. by financial and organisational support. On the other hand measures are necessary to control negative environmental and social consequences such as shortage of nutritional crops, change in agricultural structures, or eradication of primeval forests. Some examples of measures implemented in several countries are as follows Most stimulating for biofuels was the Brazil Proalcool bioethanol...

Case study Agricultural biogas production in a sports and recreation center

The following case study deals with the establishment of an agricultural biogas plant in a regional sports and recreation centre in South Africa which is for around 5,000 people. The idea behind the establishment of a biogas plant was the intended shift from a fossil fuels based energy supply toward a renewable one operating on the basis of the potentials in respect to agricultural resources, efficiency improvement options, and skills and manpower. Currently the centre is run by electricity...

The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

Besides the water cycle also the carbon cycle is fundamental for the Earth's climate. All Earth system components contain carbon and exchange it rapidly or slowly causing major changes of climate. The most active part of the carbon cycle is the exchange between the atmosphere and the biosphere, both on land and in the sea. As figure 2.3 shows the reservoir atmosphere with about 760 GtC looses about 120 70 GtC per year because carbon dioxide (CO2) is Figure 2.3 Carbon fluxes between the...

Carbon sequestration by compost application

Compost is applied in agriculture to improve soil fertility by means of the supply of mineral fertilizers, such as potassium, phosphorus, and nitrogen. Moreover, the input of compost strongly influences the soil carbon storage which is also an important factor of soil fertility. This is due to the fact that composting partly results in the increased formation of stable carbon compounds, i.e. humus-like substances and aggregates. These are made of complex compounds that render them resistant to...

Biofuels facts and definitions

As figure 13.4 displays energy from biogenic resources may be applied as direct heating material, as a transport fuel or as a source of electricity in power stations. The following chapter deals with biofuels in the transport sector. Types of biofuels are presented in table 13.5. Table 13.5 Biofuel types and market products Table 13.5 Biofuel types and market products Solid, liquid or gaseous fuel produced from plant or animal organic matter (biomass) Biodegradable fraction of products, waste...

Climate Impacts and Emission Mitigation of Selected Industrial Processes

World raw steel production was 1,200 Mio t in 2006 (USGS, 2007). Markets are growing very fast, especially in China, where annual production has reached about 420 Mio t in 2006. On a global scale steel production GHG emissions are estimated to be 1,500 to 1,600 Mio t CO2-eq., including emissions from coke manufacture and indirect emissions due to power consumption. This is equal to 6 to 7 percent of world's anthropogenic GHG emissions. Chinese steel production accounts for more than 10 percent...

Composting process characters

Composting is a technology for the treatment of organic residues using aerobic bioprocesses. Organic material, which consists of sugar, starch, cellulose, hemi-cellulose, and a lignin like fraction, is fully or partly decomposed by different kinds of micro-organisms which act in a complicated metabolic pathway. The result of the composting process is compost. It mainly consists of those organic waste components which are not or only partly used by the microbial metabolism, as well as of...

Climate impacts of biodiesel

With biodiesel the improvements relative to fossil fuel even in the worse case are in the range of more than 50 percent (see figure 13.7). The best result, with effects of more than 100 percent, would be reached if biodiesel was produced from wood as a feedstock, via the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, where byproducts of the process, such as electricity and heat, are considered. For rapeseed as a feedstock of biodiesel (as RME) the life cycle assessment comes down with benefits for the greenhouse...

Climate impacts of bioethanol

For bioethanol, in figure 13.7 five variants of feed-stocks are shown with results ranging from minus 30 to 110 percent. The worst case is corn. Grain and sugar beet follow. Sugar cane and wood are best suited. The positive results using wood as a feedstock are for the gasification of wood and the transformation of the resulting process gas into ethanol by a Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (2nd generation biofuels - see table 13.5). On average about 60 percent as compared with fossil-fuel generated...

Case study GHG effects of the German packaging material recycling system DSD

As a result of the European Packaging Directive manufacturers and distributors of packaging are obliged to take back and reuse, recover or recycle the packaging they have put onto the market. But it is not necessary to do it them selves. In Germany they may be exempted from their obligations by participating in a system which collects sales packaging from consumers on a nationwide scale. Participation in such a system must be indicated by marking the packaging in question, and evidence of...