Figure 1.1. Adapted from W. F. Ruddiman, "The Anthropogenic Greenhouse Era Began Thousands of Years Ago," Climatic Change 61 (2003): 261—93.
Figure 2.1. Adapted from P. B. deMenocal, "Plio-Pleistocene African Climate," Science 270 (1995): 53-59.
Figure 2.2. Adapted from A. C. Mix et al., "Benthic Foraminifer Stable Isotope Record from Site 849 [0-5 Ma]: Local and Global Climate Changes," Ocean Drilling Program Scientific Results 138 (1995): 371-412.
Figure 3.1. Adapted from W. F. Ruddiman, Earth's Climate (New York: W. H. Freeman, 2001).
Figure 3.2. Adapted from Ruddiman, Earth's Climate.
Figure 3.3. Adapted from Ruddiman, Earth's Climate.
Figure 4.1. Adapted from A. S. Dyke and V. C. Prest, "Late Wisconsinan and Holocene History of the Laurentide Ice Sheet," Geographie Physique et Quaternaire 41 (1987): 237-63.
Figure 4.2. Adapted from M. E. Raymo, "The initiation of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation," Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Sciences 22 (1994): 353-83.
Figure 5.1. Adapted from Ruddiman, Earth's Climate.
Figure 5.2. Adapted from COHMAP Project Members, "Climatic Changes of the Last 18,000 Years: Observations and Model Simulations," Science 241 (1988): 1043-52.
Figure 5.3. Adapted from W. F Ruddiman and M. E. Raymo, "A Methane-based Time Scale for Vostok Ice," Quaternary Science Reviews 22 (2003): 141-55.
Figure 7.1. Adapted from J. Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel (New York: W. W. Norton, 1997).
Figure 7.2. Adapted from D. Zohary and M. Hopf, Domestication of Plants in the Old World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993); and from Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel.
Figure 8.1. Adapted from T. Blunier et al., "Variations in Atmospheric Methane Concentration during the Holocene Epoch," Nature 374 (1995): 46-49; and from Ruddiman, "The Anthropogenic Greenhouse Era."
Figure 9.1. Adapted from Ruddiman and Raymo, "A Methane-based Time Scale for Vostok Ice."
Figure 9.2. Adapted from A. Indermuhle et al., "Holocene Carbon-Cycle Dynamics Based on CO2 Trapped in Ice at Taylor Dome, Antarctica," Nature 398 (1999): 121-26; and from Ruddiman, "The Anthropogenic Greenhouse Era."
Figure 9.3. Adapted from J. W. Lewthwaite and A. Sherratt, "Chronological Atlas," in A. Sherratt, ed., Cambridge Encyclopedia of Archeology (Cambridge: Cambridge Press, 1980).
Figure 10.1. Adapted from Ruddiman, "The Anthropogenic Greenhouse Era."
Figure 10.2. Adapted from J. Imbrie and J. Z. Imbrie, "Modeling the Climatic Response to Orbital Variation," Science 207 (1980): 943-53.
Figure 10.3. Adapted from Ruddiman, "The Anthropogenic Greenhouse Era."
Figure 10.4. Adapted from W. F. Ruddiman, S. J. Vavrus, and J. E. Kutzbach, "A Test of the Overdue Glaciation Hypothesis," Quaternary Science Reviews 24 (2005): 1—10.
Figure 11.1. Adapted from Ruddiman, "The Anthropogenic Greenhouse Era."
Figure 11.2. Adapted from W. F. Ruddiman, "Cold Climate during the Closest Stage 11 Analog to Recent Millennia," Quaternary Science Reviews 24 (2005): 1111—21.
Figure 11.3. Adapted from Ruddiman, "Cold Climate."
Figure 11.4. Adapted from Ruddiman, "Cold Climate."
Figure 12.1. Adapted from Indermuhle et al., "Holocene Carbon-Cycle Dynamics."
Figure 12.2. Adapted from H. H. Lamb, Climate-Past, Present and Future, vol. 2 (London: Methuen, 1977).
Figure 12.3. Adapted from M. E. Mann, R. S. Bradley, and M. K. Hughes, "Northern Hemisphere Temperatures during the Past Millennium," Geophysical Research Letters 26 (1999): 759-62.
Figure 13.1. Adapted from Ruddiman, "The Anthropogenic Greenhouse Era."
Figure 14.1. Adapted from J. T. Andrews et al., "The Laurentide Ice Sheet: Problems of the Mode and Speed of Inception," Proceedings WMO/IMAP Symposium Publication 421 (1975): 87-94.
Figure 14.2. Adapted from Ruddiman, "The Anthropogenic Greenhouse Era."
Figure 15.1. Adapted from H. H. Friedli et al., "Ice Core Records of the 13C/12C Ratio of Atmospheric CO2 in the Past Two Centuries," Nature 324 (1986): 237-38; and from M.A.K. Khalil and R.A. Rasmusen, "Atmospheric Methane: Trends over the Last 10,000 Years," Atmospheric Environment 21 (1987): 2445-52.
Figure 15.2. Adapted from P. A. Mayewski et al., "An Ice-Core Record of Atmospheric Responses to Anthropogenic Sulfate and Nitrate," Atmospheric Environment 27 (1990): 2915-19; and from R. J. Charlson et al., "Climate Forcing by Anthropogenic Aerosols," Science 255 (1992): 423-30.
Figure 16.1. Adapted from H. S. Kheshgi et al., "Accounting for the Missing Carbon Sink with the CO2-Fertilization Effect," Climatic Change 33 (1996): 31-62.
Figure 16.2. Adapted from Ruddiman, Earth's Climate.
Figure 16.3. Adapted from K. Vinnikov et al., "Global Warming and Northern Hemisphere Sea-Ice Extent," Science 286 (1999): 1934-39.
Figure 17.1. Adapted from W. F. Ruddiman, "How Did Humans First alter Global Climate?" Scientific American (March 2005): 46-53.
Figure A.1. (A) Adapted from L. Loulergue et al., "Orbital and Millennial-Scale Features of Atmospheric CH4 over the Past 800,000 Years," Nature 453 (2008), doi:10.1038/ nature 06950. (B) Adapted from D. Luthi et al., "High-Resolution Carbon Dioxide Concentration Record 650,000-800,000 Years before Present," Nature 453 (2008), doi:10.1038/nature 06949.
Figure A.3. CO2 trend adapted from Luthi et al., "High-Resolution Carbon Dioxide Concentration." Populations trends from C. McEvedy and R. Jones, Atlas of World Population History (New York: Penguin, 1978); and from W. M. Denevan, The Native Population of the Americas in 1492 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1992). Land-use estimates from W. F. Ruddiman and E. Ellis, "Effect of Per-Capita Land Use Changes on Holocene Forest Clearance and CO2 Emissions," Quaternary Science Reviews (forthcoming). (However an online version is currently available at doi:10 .1016/j.quascirev.2009.05.022.)
Figure A.4. Adapted from W. F. Ruddiman, Z. Guo, X. Zhou, H. Wu, and Y. Yu, "Rice
Farming and Anomalous Methane Trends," Quaternary Science Reviews 27 (2008), doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2008.03.007.
Figure A.5. (A) Adapted from L. E. Lisiecki and M. E. Raymo, "A Plio-Pleistocene Stack of 57 Globally Distributed Benthic d18O Records," Paleoceanography 20 (2005), doi:10.1029/2004PA001071. (B) Adapted from J. Jouzel et al., "Orbital and Millennial Antarctic Climatic Variability over the Past 800,000 Years," Science 317 (2007): 793-97.
Figure A.7. Adapted from J. E. Kutzbach, W. F. Ruddiman, S. J. Vavrus, and G. Phillipon, "Climate Model Simulation of Anthropogenic Influence on Greenhouse-Induced Climate Change (Early Agricultural to Modern): The Role of Ocean Feedbacks," Climatic Change (2009), doi: 10.1007/s10584-009-9684-1.
Figure A.8. (Top) Adapted from M. Meure et al., "Law Dome CO2, CH4, and NO2 Ice Core Records Extended to 2000 Years BP," Geophysical Research Letters 33 (2006), doi:10.1029/2006GL026152. (Bottom) Adapted from McEvedy and Jones, Atlas of World Population History, and from Denevan, The Native Population of the Americas in 1492.
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