The following volumes were useful sources in compiling this book and are written in a general style that should be accessible to nonspecialist readers.

Part Two

Alvarez, W. T. rex and the Crater of Doom. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997. Chorlton, W. Ice Ages. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1983. Imbrie, J., and K. Imbrie. Ice Ages: Solving the Mystery. Short Hills, NJ: Enslow, 1979. Tudge, C. The Time before History. New York: Touchstone, 1997.

Part Three

Diamond, J. M. Guns, Germs, and Steel. New York: W. W. Norton, 1999.

Roberts, N. The Holocene. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998.

Smith, H. The World's Religions. San Francisco: Harper, 1991.

Williams, M. A. Deforesting the Earth. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

Part Four

Bray, R. S. Armies of Pestilence. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1996. Cartwright, F. E. Disease and History. New York: Dorset Press,1972.

Denevan, W. M., ed. The Native Population of the Americas in 1492. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1978. Krech, S. The Ecological Indian. New York: W. W. Norton, 1999.

McEvedy, C., and R. Jones. Atlas of World Population History. New York: Penguin Books, 1978.

McNeil, W. Plagues and Peoples. Garden City, NY: Doubleday Press, 1976. Times Atlas ofWorld History. Maplewood, NJ: Hammond, 1982.

Part Five

Deffeyes, K. Hubbert's Peak. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001.


Leopold, A. A Sand County Almanac. New York: Oxford University Press, 1949.

Michaels, P. J., and R. C. Balling, Jr. The Satanic Gases. Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 2000.

Schneider, S. H. Laboratory Earth. New York: Basic Books, 1997.


Boserup, E., The Conditions of Agricultural Growth. New York: Aldine, 1965.

General resource for information on Earth's climatic history: Ruddiman, W. F. Earth's Climate. New York: W. H. Freeman, 2001.

The following peer-reviewed publications were used as the basis for sections of the book.

Parts Three and Four

Ruddiman, W. F. "Cold Climate during the Closest Stage 11 Analog to Recent Millennia."

Quaternary Science Reviews 24, 1111—21 (2005).

-. "How Did Humans First alter Global Climate?" Scientific American (March

-. "Humans Took Control of Greenhouse Gases Thousands of Years Ago." Climatic

-. "Orbital Insolation, Ice Volume, and Greenhouse Gases." Quaternary Science

Reviews 22 (2003): 1597-1629. Ruddiman, W. F., and M. E. Raymo. "A Methane-based Time Scale for Vostok Ice."

Quaternary Science Reviews 22 (2003): 141-55. Ruddiman, W. F., and J. S. Thomson. "The Case for Human Causes of Increased Atmospheric CH4 over the Last 5000 Years." Quaternary Science Reviews 20 (2001): 1769-77.


Joos, F., S. Gerber, I. C. Prentice, B. L. Otto-Bleisner, and P. Valdes. "Transient Simulations of Holocene Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Terrestrial Carbon since the Last Glacial Maximum." Global Biogeochemical Cycles 18 (2004), GB2002, doi: 10.1029/2003GB002156.

Kutzbach, J. E., W. F. Ruddiman, S. J. Vavrus, and G. Phillipon. "Climate Model Simulation of Anthropogenic Influence on Greenhouse-Induced Climate Change (Early Agricultural to Modern): The Role of Ocean Feedbacks." Climatic Change (2009), doi: 10.1007/s10584-009-9684-1.

Meure, M., et al. "Law Dome CO2, CH4, and NO2 Ice Core Records Extended to 2000 Years BP." Geophysical Research Letters 33 (2006), doi:10.1029/2006GL026152.

Ruddiman, W. F., and A. G. Carmichael. "Pre-Industrial Depopulation Episodes and

Climate Change." In Global Environmental Change and Human Health, edited by M. O. Andreae, U. Confalonieri, and A. J. McMichael, 158-94. Vatican City: Pontifical Academy of Sciences, 2006.

Ruddiman, W. F., and E. Ellis. "Effect of Per-Capita Land Use Changes on Holocene Forest Clearance and CO2 Emissions." Quaternary Science Reviews (forthcoming). (An online version is currently available at doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.05.022.)

Ruddiman, W. F., Z. Guo, X. Zhou, H. Wu, and Y. Yu. "Rice Farming and Anomalous Methane Trends." Quaternary Science Reviews 27 (2008), doi:10.1016/j.quascirev .2008.03.007.

Vavrus, S., W. F. Ruddiman, and J. E. Kutzbach. "Climate Model Tests of the Anthropogenic Influence on Greenhouse-Induced Climate Change: The Role of Early Human Agriculture, Industrialization, and Vegetation Feedbacks." Quaternary Science Reviews 27 (2008), doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2008.04.011.

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