Natural Medium and Shortterm Climate Change Astronomical Forcing El Nino Southern Oscillation

^ermohaline Circulation, and Massive Volcanism 20

Astronomical Forcing of the Climate 21

^ermohaline Circulation and Climate 27

El NiƱo and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO) 30

Major Volcanic Eruptions and Climate Change 34

Understanding the Greenhouse Effect 35

Examples of Climate Changes Caused by

Flood Basalt Volcanism 38

How Fast Can Climate Change? 40

Conclusion 41

3 Human-Induced Climate Changes 43

Temperature Variations during the Past 1,000 Years 44

Observed Short-term Climate Changes and Their Effects 47

Causes of Short-term Climate Change 49

Global Warming Holes 51 Comparison of Short-term Climate Changes with the Medium-term Paleoclimate Record 52

Sea Level Changes 53

Conclusion 56

4 Global Climate Changes That Lead to Droughts and Desert Formation 58

Processes That Lead to the Formation of Deserts 60

Is There a Drought in Las Vegas? 62

Desert Landforms 66

Wind in Deserts 68

Windblown Sand and Dust 70

Conclusion 75

5 Examples of Expanding Deserts and Drought Disasters 76

Drought Caused by Changes in Global

Atmospheric Circulation 77 Drought and Desertification in the Sahel and

Sub-Saharan Africa 78

China's Effort to Halt Expansion of the Gobi Desert 79

The United States Dust Bowl Period 81 Drought and Water Shortage Brought On by Population Growth 83

Shifting Deserts and Desertification 90

Conclusion 92

6 Shrinking Glaciers 93

Formation of Glaciers 95

Movement of Glaciers 96

Glaciation and Glacial Landforms 97

Glacial Transport 98

Types of Glacial Hazards 100

Sudden Draining of Glacial Lake Terentiev, by Glacier Retreat 102

Glaciers as Sensitive Indicators of Paleoclimate 1G6

Causes of Glaciations 1G8

Conclusion 1G8

7 Past, Present, and Future: Prediction and Mitigation of

Future Climate Change 109

Global Hothouses and Global Icehouses:

History of Climate Change 1G9 Predictions of Future Climate Changes by the

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 116

Shifting Climate Belts 119

Mitigation of Climate Change 12G

Carbon Sequestration 122

Conclusion 125

S Summary 127

Appendix: Geological Timescale 131

Glossary 133

Further Reading and Web Sites 143

Index 149

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