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Abrahams, A. D., and A. J. Parsons. Geomorphology of Desert Environments. Norwell, Mass.: Kluwer Academic Publishers for Chapman and Hall, 1994. This is a comprehensive textbook describing the wide range of landforms and processes in desert environments.

Ahrens, C. D. Meteorology Today, An Introduction to Weather, Climate, and the Environment. 6th ed. Pacific Grove, Calif.: Brooks/Cole, 2000. An introductory text for freshman college level on meteorology, weather, and climate.

Ashworth, William, and Charles E. Little. Encyclopedia of Environmental Studies, New Edition. New York: Facts On File, 2001. A comprehensive encyclopedia for high-school students covering diverse aspects of the environment.

Bagnold, R. A. The Physics of Blown Sand and Desert Dunes. London: Methuen, 1941. This is a classic textbook written based on observations of windblown sand during the war, and was the first to complete a comprehensive study of the physics of windblown sand.

Blackwell, Major James. Thunder in the Desert, The Strategy and Tactics of the Persian Gulf War. New York: Bantam, 1991. This is a readable novel-style book that describes the events of the Allied forces in the first Gulf war, including the events that led to the mobility of the sand sheets around Kuwait City.

Botkin, D., and E. Keller. Environmental Science. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley and Sons, 2003. This is an introductory college-level book that discusses many issues of environmental science.

Bryant, E. A. Natural Hazards. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991. This is a moderately advanced textbook on the science of natural hazards.

Bryson, R., and T. Murray. Climates of Hunger. Canberra, Australia: Australian National University Press, 1977. This book describes how drought leads to famine and starvation, with emphasis on the Sahel.

Culliton, Thomas J., Maureen A. Warren, Timothy R. Goodspeed, Davida G. Remer, Carol M. Blackwell, and John McDonough III. Fifty Years of Population Growth Along the Nation's Coasts, 1960-2010. Rockville, Md.: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1990. This government report shows how half of the nation's population now lives within 60 miles (100 km) of the coast.

Dawson, A. G. Ice Age Earth. London: Routledge, 1992. This book describes environmental and geological conditions on the Pleistocene Earth during the ice ages.

Douglas, B., M. Kearney, and S. Leatherman. Sea Level Rise: History and Consequence. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, International Geophysics Series, vol. 75, 2000. A book describing past and present sea level rise, its causes, and what effects it has on coastal environments.

El-Baz, F., T. M. Kusky, I. Himida, and S. Abdel-Mogheeth, eds. Ground Water Potential of the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. Cairo: Desert Research Center, 1998. This book describes the geology, geomorphology, and groundwater potential in the Sinai Desert of Egypt.

El-Baz, F., and M. Sarawi, eds. Atlas of the State of Kuwait from Satellite Images. Ostfildern, Germany: Cantz Publishers, for Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Science, 2000. This is a beautifully illustrated atlas of Kuwait, showing the environment before and after the first Gulf war.

Erickson, Jon. Glacial Geology: How Ice Shapes the Land. New York: Facts On File, 1996. A book for high-school students about glaciers and their effect on shaping landscapes in glaciated regions.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contributions of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. This is the most comprehensive and up-to-date scientific assessment of past, present, and future climate change.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Contributions of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Parry, M., O. Canziani, J. Palutikof, P. van der Linden, and C. Hanson, eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. This is the most comprehensive and up-to-date scientific assessment of the impacts of climate change, the vulnerability of natural and human environments, and the potential for response through adaptation.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007. Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contributions of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Metz,

B., O. R. Davidson, P. R. Bosch, R. Dave, and L. A. Meyer, eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. This is the most comprehensive and up-to-date assessment of mitigation of future climate change.

Kusky, T. M. Encyclopedia of Earth Science. New York: Facts On File, 2004. A comprehensive encyclopedia of earth sciences written for college and high-school audiences and the general public.

Reisner, M. Cadillac Desert, The American West and Its Disappearing Water. New York: Penguin, 1986. This is a fascinating book about the history of the development of the west and how critical water resources were to the founding of cities such as Los Angeles.

Starr, J. R., and D. C. Stoll, eds. The Politics of Scarcity, Water in the Middle East. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1988. This book describes the political issues surrounding the severe lack of water with a growing population in the Middle East.

Walker, A. S. Deserts: Geology and Resources. U.S. Geological Survey, Publication 421-577, 1996. This government publication covers the geological landforms and characteristics of desert environments.

journal articles

Alley, R. B., and M. L. Bender. "Greenland Ice Cores: Frozen in Time." Scientific American, February 1998. An article describing the science of taking and analyzing ice cores for climate studies from Greenland.

Crombie, M. K., R. Arvidson, N. C. Sturchio, Z. El-Alfy, and K. Abu Zeid. "Age and isotopic constraints on Pleistocene pluvial episodes in the Western Desert, Egypt" Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecol-ogy 130 (1997) 337-355. This article presents an analysis of how old the groundwater is in the Western Desert of Egypt and across the Sahara.

Kasting, James F. "Earth's Early Atmosphere." Science 259 (1993) 920-925. An assessment of what the earliest atmosphere on Earth was made of and how it evolved into the present atmosphere.

Kunzig, Robert. "Drying of the West." National Geographic Magazine 213, no. 2 (2008) 90-113. This article describes the growing drought conditions in the desert Southwest and along the Colorado River.

Kusky, T. M., and F. El Baz. "Structural and tectonic evolution of the Sinai Peninsula, using Landsat data: implications for ground water exploration." Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing 1 (1999) 69-100. This article describes evidence for an ancient wet climate in northern Africa and Sinai.

McKee, E. D., ed. "A study of global sand seas." U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1052 (1979). A comprehensive description of the different giant sand dune fields, or sand seas, across the world.

Muhs, Daniel R., and James R. Budahan. "Geochemical evidence for the origin of Late Quaternary loess in Central Alaska" Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 43 (2006) 323-337. This paper describes the age and origin of the sand dunes and loess fields of central Alaska. Pan, Z., M. Segal, and C. Graves. "On the potential change in surface water vapor deposition over the continental United States due to increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases." Journal of Climate 19 (2006) 1,5761,585. This article describes the formation of the global warming hole over the central United States. Pan, Z., R. W. Arritt, E. S. Takle, W. J. Gutowski Jr., C. J. Anderson, and M. Segal. "Altered hydrologic feedback in a warming climate introduces a 'warming hole.'" Geophysical Research Letters 31 (2004). This technical paper describes the physics of forming global warming holes and was the first to describe the atmospheric warming hole that causes the midwestern United States to become wetter and slightly cooler while the rest of the planet gets warmer during global warming. Schroeder, Peter, Robert Smith, and Kevin Apps. "Solar evolution and the distant future of Earth" Astronomy and Geophysics 42, no. 6 (December 2001): 6.26-6.29. This article describes the future of the Sun and Earth.

Webster, D. "Alashan, China's unknown Gobi." National Geographic 201, no. 1 (January 2002): 48-75. This well-illustrated article describes the drought and history of parts of the Gobi Desert of China and Mongolia.

web sites

In the past few years numerous Web sites with information about climate change have appeared. Most of these Web sites are free and include historical information about specific causes, hazards, and disasters, realtime monitoring of climate change hotspots around the world, and educational material. The sites listed below have interesting information, statistics, and graphics about these hazards. This book may serve as a useful companion while surfing through the information on the Internet when encountering unfamiliar phrases, terms, or concepts that are not fully explained on the Web site. The following list of Web sites is recommended to help enrich the content of this book and make your exploration of climate change more enjoyable. From these Web sites you will also be able to link to a large variety of climate hazard-related sites. Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information provided for these Web sites. However, due to the dynamic nature of the Internet, changes might occur, and any inconvenience is regretted.

Federal Emergency Management Agency. FEMA is the nation's premier agency that deals with emergency management and preparation and issues warnings and evacuation orders when disasters appear imminent.

FEMA maintains a Web site that is updated at least daily and includes information of hurricanes, floods, fires, and national flood insurance, and on disaster prevention, preparation, and emergency management. Divided into national and regional sites. Also contains information on costs of disasters, maps, and directions on how to do business with FEMA. Available online. URL: http://www.fema.gov. Accessed January 30, 2008.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The IPCC is a scientific intergovernmental body set up by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). The IPCC is open to all member countries of WMO and UNEP. Governments participate in plenary sessions of the IPCC where main decisions about the IPCC work program are taken and reports are accepted, adopted, and approved. They also participate in the review of IPCC Reports. The IPCC includes hundreds of scientists from all over the world who contribute to the work of the IPCC as authors, contributors, and reviewers. As a United Nations body, the IPCC work aims at the promotion of the United Nations human development goals. The IPCC was established to provide the decision-makers and others interested in climate change with an objective source of information about climate change. The IPCC does not conduct any research nor does it monitor climate-related data or parameters. Its role is to assess on a comprehensive, objective, open, and transparent basis the latest scientific, technical, and socio-economic literature produced worldwide relevant to the understanding of the risk of human-induced climate change, its observed and projected impacts, and options for adaptation and mitigation. IPCC reports should be neutral with respect to policy, although they need to deal objectively with policy relevant to scientific, technical and socio-economic factors. They should be of high scientific and technical standards and aim to reflect a range of views, expertise, and wide geographical coverage. Available online. URL: http://www. ipcc.ch/index.htm. Accessed January 30, 2008.

National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA). NASA's Web site on Natural Hazards: Earth scientists around the world use NASA satellite imagery to better understand the causes and effects of natural hazards including climate change. This site posts many public domain images to help people visualize where and when natural hazards occur and to help mitigate their effects. All images in this section are freely available to the public for re-use or re-publication. Available online. URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/. Accessed January 30, 2008.

National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Hazards Research. Web site about hazards, including climate change. NOAA conducts research and gathers data about the global oceans, atmosphere, space, and Sun, and applies this knowledge to science and service that touch lives of all Americans. NOAA's mission is to describe and predict changes in Earth's environment and conserve and wisely manage the nation's coastal and marine resources. NOAA's strategy consists of seven interrelated strategic goals for environmental assessment, prediction and stewardship. These include 1) advance short-term warnings and forecast services, 2) implement season to interannual climate forecasts, 3) assess and predict decadal to centennial change, 4) promote safe navigation, 5) build sustainable fisheries, 6) recover protected species, and 7) sustain healthy coastal ecosystems. NOAA runs a Web site that includes links to current satellite images of weather hazards, issues warnings of current coastal hazards and disasters, and has an extensive historical and educational service. Available online. URL: http://ngdc. noaa.gov/seg/hazard/tsu.html. Accessed January 30, 2008.

National Weather Service. The National Weather Service, FEMA, and the Red Cross maintain a Web site dedicated to describing how to prepare for severe weather, describing hazards of various types, and providing in depth descriptions of warnings and types of home emergency kits that families should keep in their homes. Available online. URL: http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/brochures/ffbro.htm. Accessed January 30, 2008.

Natural Hazards Observer. This Web site is the online version of The Natural Hazards Observer, the bimonthly periodical of the Natural Hazards Center. It covers current disaster issues; new international, national, and local disaster management, mitigation, and education programs; hazards research; political and policy developments; new information sources and Web sites; upcoming conferences; and recent publications. Distributed to more than 15,000 subscribers in the United States and abroad via their Web site, the Observer focuses on news regarding human adaptation and response to natural hazards and other catastrophic events and provides a forum for concerned individuals to express opinions and generate new ideas through invited personal articles. Available online: URL: http://www.colorado.edu/hazards/o/. Accessed January 30, 2008.

United States Geological Survey, Water Resources. The United States Geological Survey monitors weather and stream flow conditions nationwide and also monitors groundwater levels. Its Web site also contains information on water quality and water use and contains maps and charts of water use-related issues. The Web site has connections to other related Web sites. Available online. URL: http://water.usgs. gov/. Accessed January 30, 2008.

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How To Survive The End Of The World

How To Survive The End Of The World

Preparing for Armageddon, Natural Disasters, Nuclear Strikes, the Zombie Apocalypse, and Every Other Threat to Human Life on Earth. Most of us have thought about how we would handle various types of scenarios that could signal the end of the world. There are plenty of movies on the subject, psychological papers, and even survivalists that are part of reality TV shows. Perhaps you have had dreams about being one of the few left and what you would do in order to survive.

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