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calcite (CaCO3) 11 calcium carbonate (CaCO2) 6 calcium carbonate (CaCO3) 2, 6 California, population growth and water shortages 88, 89m Callendar, Guy Stewart 35 calving 97, 100-101, 101 Canada

Pleistocene ice sheet 109-110, 110 polar desert 66 shifting climate belts 119 Ungava Peninsula (Canada) 105 carbon dioxide (CO2)

changing concentrations of 22, 49,

50, 51, 52, 55 evolution and structure of the atmosphere 2, 3, 6, 10-12 greenhouse effect 35 plate tectonics and 13-14, xv-xvi reducing emissions of 51, 52,

121-123 supercontinent formation and breakup and xvi thermohaline circulation and levels of 30

volcanism and 12-13 carbon sequestration 122-123 Caribbean Sea plateau 37-38

Cenozoic glaciation 114-116 chemical weathering 2 Chicxulub impact crater (Mexico) 37 China

Beijing region warming hole 51 dust storm 74

79, 91, xvi Shaanxi Province earthquake (1556) 75

chlorofluorocarbons 6-7 Chugach Mountains glacier (Alaska) 99

cirques 97-98 Climate Change 2007. See Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change climate zones 115m coastal deserts 65, 120 Colorado River system 62 Columbia Glacier (Alaska) 102 Columbia River flood basalts

(Washington, Oregon, Idaho) 36, 39 continental interior/midlatitude deserts

62-64, 63 continent-continent collisions 2, 15 convergent plate boundaries 12, 13 Coriolis effect 9 creep 96

Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and extinction 36-37, 39 crevasses 96-97, 100 cryosphere 93

Darfur region (Africa) 80-81 Deccan flood basalts (India, Seychelles)

36-37 deflation 68 deflation basins 69 desertification 30-31, 59-60, 78-81,

90-92 desert pavements 69-70 Desert Research Institute (China) 71

deserts 60m coastal deserts 65 continental interior/midlatitude deserts 62-64, 63 drainage systems 67-68 drought and famine and 75, 90-92 landforms 66-67 monsoon deserts 65 polar deserts 66

rainshadow deserts 61, 64, 64-65 sand dunes 71-74, 72, 73 Southwest United States 88-89, 89m temperatures 58-59 trade wind (Hadley Cell) deserts 61 types of 59 wind erosion 68-70 desert varnish 66-67 diurnal cycles 58-59 divergent plate boundaries 12-13 Dolomite Mountains (Italy) 27 dropstones 99 droughts definition 59

El Niño and the Southern Oscillation

(ENSO) and 30, 31, 34, 47 expanding deserts and 90-92 Middle East population growth and water shortages 83-88, 85m, 92 Jordan River 84, 85m, 86-87 Nile River 84, 85, 86 Tigris-Euphrates river system 84, 85m, 88 population growth and 83-89 progression of 76-77 Sahel region 75, 78-81 Southwest desert (United States) 62,

88-89, 89m, 92, 119 Southwest region (U.S.) 62 thermohaline circulation and 29-30 drumlins 98

Dryas 29 dry lake beds 68 dust 52, 59

eccentricity cycle 23, 24, 25

Egypt, Nile River 85, 86

El Niño and the Southern Oscillation

(ENSO) 30-34, 31, 33, 42, 56, 78 ENSO. See El Niño and the Southern

Oscillation (ENSO) Ethiopia famines 77 Nile River 85, 86 extinctions 36-37, 39-40

famines 30-31, 34

Fayette Village State Park (Michigan)

38 fiords 98

flash floods 67-68 flood basalt events (traps, igneous provinces) 34-40 Afar region (Africa) 37 Caribbean Sea plateau 37-38 Columbia River (Washington,

Oregon, Idaho) 36, 39 Deccan flood basalts (India,

Seychelles) 36-37, 39 definition 34-36 major eruptions and warming and cooling 34 North Atlantic Igneous Province 37 Ontong-Java Plateau (Pacific Ocean) 38

Siberian flood basalts 39-40 South Atlantic flood basalts 37 forest management 124-125 Fort Proctor (Mississippi Delta, Louisiana) xvii fossil fuels 6, 7 Fourier, Joseph 35 frost wedging 66 fuel efficiency 124

glacial drift 99 glacial erratics 99-100 glacial marine drift 99 glacial moraines 96, 98-99, 99, 100, xviii glacial striations 97 glaciation 97-98

glaciations 29, 108 See also global icehouses; ice ages glaciers 93-108, 94, 98 definition 93 formation of 95 hazards of 95, 100-106 avalanches 101 calving 97, 100-101, 101 crevasses 100

icebergs and sea ice 101, 103-106 landforms 96, 97-98, xviii Milankovitch cycles and 23-24, 26 movement of 96-97 periodic advance and retreat 21 study of 106-108 sudden draining of glacial Lake

Terentiev 102-103, 103 transport and deposits 98-100 types of 94-95 zones 95-96, 96 Global Climate Observing System

(GCOS) 44-45 global hothouses (hothouse earth)

112-114, xv-xvi global icehouses 93, 109-112, 114-116 global warming and cooling, history of 19, 109-116, 125, xv-xvi See also temperatures, global global warming holes 51 Gobi Desert (China) 63, 63-64, 70, 71, 71, 79, 91, xvi

Gondwana 14, 111 greenhouse effect 6-7, 10-12, 35 greenhouse gases atmospheric structure 6-7 and formation of Earth's atmosphere 10-12

human-induced increases in 49, 50,

51-52, 52, 53 increased concentrations since 1850 47

increasing concentrations 49, 50, 56 predicted future effects of 116-119 reducing emissions of 120-125,

125-126 and sea level rise 55 thermohaline circulation and 30, 128 Greenland glaciers 107 icebergs 105 ice sheet 53, 54-55 melting ice cap 48 polar desert 66 Gulf War (1991) 69-70

Hadley Cell deserts 61 Hadley Cells 7, 8, 9, 77-78 hardpan (playas) 68 Heinrich Events 29 heterosphere 4, 5 homosphere 4, 5 horns 98

hothouse earth (global hothouses)

xv-xvi, 112-114 human-induced climate change

(anthropogenic climate change) xvii, 109, 129

agricultural practices 80, 82, 84, 124 comparison to longer-term natural variations 52-53 global warming holes 51 increases in greenhouse gases 49-52, 50, 52, 53

observed changes and effects of 47-49

population growth and water shortages 83-89 desert Southwest (United States)

62, 88-89, 89m, 92, 119 Middle East 83-88, 85m, 92 Jordan River 84, 85m, 86-87 Nile River 84, 85, 86 Tigris-Euphrates river system 84, 85m, 88 sea-level rise 43, 53-56 temperature changes 43, 44-45, 45, 46 hurricanes 48-49

ice ages 21, 93

icebergs and sea ice 101, 103-106 ice caps 94

ice cores 22, 44, 106, 107-108 icehouses. See global icehouses ice sheets 30, 94 ice shelves 94, 100-101, 101 Idaho

Columbia River flood basalts 39 Lake Bonneville 68 igneous provinces. See flood basalt events (traps, igneous provinces) India

Deccan flood basalts 36-37 Rajputana desert 78 inselbergs 68

interglacial periods 21, 106 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Climate Change 2007) 43, 44, 47, 49, 79, 116-119, 121, 128 ionosphere 4, 5

Iraq, Tigris-Euphrates drainage basin

85, 88 isothermal regions 5 Israel, Jordan River 85, 86-87 Italy, Dolomite Mountains 27

jet streams 9, 78

Jordan, Jordan River 84, 85m, 86-87 Jordan River 84, 85m, 86-87

Kurdish people, Tigris-Euphrates drainage basin 85, 88 Kuwait desert pavements 69-70 Kyoto Protocol 51, 121

latent heat 6

lateral moraines 99

Lebanon, Jordan River 85m, 86-87

loess 75

longitudinal dunes 73 Louisiana, Fort Proctor (Mississippi Delta) xvii

Mariotte, Edme 35

mass extinctions 36-37, 39-40

medial moraines 99

Mediterranean Sea, closing of 115-116

mesopause 4, 5

mesosphere 4, 5

methane (CH ) 6, 9, 49, 50, 55, 114 methane gas hydrates 114 Mexico, Chicxulub impact crater 37 Michigan, Fayette Village State Park 38 Middle East population growth and water shortages 83-88, 85m, 92 Jordan River 84, 85m, 86-87 Nile River 84, 85, 86 Tigris-Euphrates river system 84, 85m, 88

midlatitude/continental interior deserts

62-64, 63 mid-ocean ridge systems 12 Milankovitch, Milutin 21-22 Milankovitch cycles 20, 21-27, 41 climate predictions using 26, 27

eccentricity cycle 23, 24, 25 obliquity cycle 23, 24, 25 Precession of the Equinoxes (wobble)

23, 24, 25 and sedimentary rock sequences 27 Missouri River Basin warming hole 51 monsoon deserts 65 monsoons 32

moraines 96, 98-99, 99, xviii mountain glaciers 94

Namib Desert (Namibia, Africa) 65, 91, 113

National Ocean and Atmospheric

Administration 62 Nevada, Lake Bonneville 68 Nile River 84, 85, 86 nitrogen 3, 5

nitrous oxide (NO2) 6, 49, 50 North Atlantic cold bottom water 27 North Atlantic Igneous Province 37 North Atlantic Ocean circulation patterns 40-41

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