Appendix

The Geologic Timescale

Age (millions

First

Era

Period

Epoch

of years)

Life-forms

Geology

Holocene

0.01

Quaternary

Pleistocene

3

Humans

Ice age

Cenozoic

Pliocene

11

Mastodons

Cascades

Neogene

Miocene

26

Saber-toothed tigers

Alps

Tertiary

Oligocene

37

Paleogene

Eocene

54

Whales

Paleocene

65

Horses, Alligators

Rockies

Cretaceous

135

Birds

Sierra Nevada

Mesozoic

Jurassic

210

Mammals

Atlantic

Dinosaurs

Triassic

250

Permian

280

Reptiles

Appalachians

Pennsylvanian

310

Ice age

Trees

Carboniferous

Paleozoic

Mississippian

345

Amphibians

Pangaea

Insects

Devonian

400

Sharks

Silurian

435

Land plants

Laurasia

Ordovician

500

Fish

Cambrian

544

Sea plants

Gondwana

Shelled animals

700

Invertebrates

Rodinia

Proterozoic

2500

Metazoans

3500

Earliest life

Archean

4000

Oldest rocks

4600

Meteorites

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