Validation of the Model

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The simulated and observed daily multiannual means are compared for the corresponding climate fields for the period 1961-1990 for the entire used domain (Fig. 33.2) by visual and single values assigned for each climate field. The Visual Climate Data Analysis Tool (VCDAT) is used to extract the statistical mean and standard deviation. We can see that the model has a cold bias and slightly decreases the actual precipitation and evaporation. The model tends to give slightly higher values in wind speeds and runoff (Table 33.2). If the area covering Saudi Arabia is considered instead of the whole domain, the agreements of the model to observation are much better. The statistical standard deviation shows that the mean values for the model are more spread for temperature, evaporation, and wind speeds than the corresponding observations, while the model's means for precipitation and runoff show less spread values than the corresponding observations.

Figure 33.2 Validation of daily mean temperature and precipitation. The model is represented by (a) temperature and (c) the precipitation, while (b) and (d) are for the corresponding observations based on ERA40 reanalysis data.

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Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable.

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