Using GIS technology

An approach to use GIS in reading meteorological data as features, points, or polygons and carrying basic statistical operations on the resultant layers was performed repeatedly for temperature, precipitation, evaporation, runoff, and wind speeds. Points represent cities and meteorological stations, while the polygons represent defined regions of Saudi Arabia. The defined 6 regions and 37 locations scattered all over Saudi Arabia were studied separately.

GIS data for Saudi Arabia's political boundaries, coastal shores, and identified locations had been utilized. The designated six regions of Saudi Arabia were communicated to GIS by using x and y values for the vortices of each region and then connecting the vortices. Similarly, main cities and meteorological stations were located from their latitudes and longitudes. Enhancement to the map was carried out after testing several ways to get the output data from the climate model to GIS. The climate fields' data were written on Microsoft Office Excel file, then saved as a Microsoft Office access' database which further communicated to GIS by joining features. It was found that a desired column of data from Excel file can be copied and pasted on the desired layer using ArcMap's editors after creating the corresponding field in ArcCatalog. The means of climate fields were created as features in every region and every meteorological station. Historical, predicted, and percentages of climate change results were viewed as multivariable bar charts by implementing 'symbology' in layer's properties.

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