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I Raw Material Input and Fossil Fuels Use j

Fig. 10.1 Relationship between food supply chain and global warming in terms of raw material and fossil fuel use (modified from Foster et al. 2006).

The world's total energy utilization for food production, processing, distribution, preparation, etc., is known to be 1600 liters of oil per capita per year (Maul, 2003). In this, transportation plays a key role in the food system and is vastly more complex than just shipping directly from the farm to homes. There is no doubt that for many foods the environmental impacts of organic agriculture are lower than for the equivalent conventionally grown food (Anon., 2001a,b). So, there is sufficient evidence available to state that organic agriculture overall would have less environmental impact than conventional agriculture since it uses more material and energy and produces more greenhouse gases. Since there is a wide variation in the agricultural impacts of food grown in different parts of the world, global sourcing could be a better environmental option for particular foods. Usually, the processes include a mixture of boiling, pasteurization, evaporation, cooking, baking, and frying. Electrical consumption (besides for lighting and ventilation) is primarily used for pumps, cyclones, milling, conveyers and other transport systems, and in compressed air and cooling systems. The cooling system often represents approximately 50% of the total electricity consumption (e.g., Pimentel and Pimentel, 1996; Dalsgaard and Abbotts, 2000; Pelupessy, 2000).

Smoking

Drying

Cooling

Freezing

Boiling

Frying

Cooking

Pasteurisation

Sterilisation

Raw material

\

r

Preparation

\

J

Unit Operations

Packing

Storage

Washing

Trimming

Filtration

Digestion

Separation

Modified

Others

Freeze

Chill

Preparation

Food ready to eat

Fig. 10.2 A flowchart of general process steps in food industry. 10.2.3 Energy use in food supply steps

Most of food processing operations are highly energy intensive and cause a high degree of environmental impact. Energy consumption in the food industry, as in most other industries, consists of a mix of energy use necessary for the operation of the existing equipment and energy use. The unnecessary use of energy caused by suboptimal operation of the production plant can be reduced by introducing energy management methods and systems. Processing step has energy consumption, water use, cleaning chemical production and consumption, the use of intermediate packaging than possibly extra transport. In this regard, Fig. 10.3 shows crucial energy consumption points and common process flows during food supply chain.

f General Energy Sources \ •# # V for Food Industry J** •

••••^Fossil : Energy Sources^ Petroleum ^ *

Renewable Energy Sources

Geothermal ^ ^ Tidal

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