Ibrahim Dincer

University of Ontario

Institute of Technology (UOIT)

Fac. Engineering & Applied Science

2000 Simcoe Street N.

Oshawa ON L1H7K4


[email protected] Adnan Midilli

Department of Mechanical Engineering Nigde University 51200 Nigde Turkey

[email protected]

Arif Hepbasli

Department of Mechanical Engineering Ege University 35100 Bornova, Izmir Turkey arif.hepbasli @ ege.edu.tr

T. Hikmet Karakoc Anadolu University School of Civil Aviation 26470 Eskisehir Turkey

[email protected]

ISSN 1865-3529 e-ISSN 1865-3537

ISBN 978-1-4419-1016-5 e-ISBN 978-1-4419-1017-2

DOI 10.1007/978-1-4419-1017-2

Springer New York Dordrecht Heidelberg London

Library of Congress Control Number: 2009930937

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

All rights reserved. This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher (Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013, USA), except for brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis. Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed is forbidden. The use in this publication of trade names, trademarks, service marks, and similar terms, even if they are not identified as such, is not to be taken as an expression of opinion as to whether or not they are subject to proprietary rights.

Printed on acid-free paper

Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com)


Global warming is considered an average increase in the Earth's temperature due to greenhouse effect as a result of both natural and human activities. In common usage, "global warming" often refers to the warming that can occur as a result of increased emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities, e.g., carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and fluorinated gases, which act like a greenhouse around the earth, trapping the heat from the sun into the earth's atmosphere and increasing the Earth's temperature.

Catastrophic events around the world have brought a desperate picture to forefront! The Global Conference on Global Warming 2008 (GCGW-08) was initiated to bring all disciplines together for local and global solutions to combat global warming. It is a multi-disciplinary global conference on global warming (and climate change), not only in engineering and science but also in all other disciplines (e.g., ecology, education, social sciences, economics, management, political sciences, and information technology). It covers a broad range of topics on energy and environment policies, energy resources, energy conversion technologies, energy management and conservation, energy security, renewables, green technologies, emission reduction and abatement, carbon tax, sustainable development, pollution control and measures, policy development, etc.

Intensifying global environmental problems require internationally coordinated responses, which must balance the goals of energy security, environmental protection, and economic growth. The adoption of a comprehensive approach to energy and environment issues and the integration of energy and environment policies have become central activities of several countries. National and global solutions to reduce pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions have implications for energy security, energy trade, economic growth, etc. To some extend the global climate change is still perceived by many as a debatable issue. For example, despite the policy measures taken to date, unless the rapid establishment and implementation of further effective policies and programs to reduce emissions are conducted, greenhouse gas emissions would continue increasing unless the right cure is underway. Of course, this requires the full range of possible areas for action and policy instruments.

This book is a unique collection of 45 selected papers out of the papers presented in the GCGW-08 in Istanbul, Turkey, on July 6-10, 2008, to cover a wide variety of topics from the main principles of thermodynamics and their role in design, analysis, and performance improvement of energy systems to the potential impact of global warming on human health and welfare.

Although the main focus of this book is engineering solutions to combat global warming, there is a diverse coverage from carbon sequestration to risk management, from sustainable construction to waste management, and many more to serve as a sustainable source of knowledge and information for researchers, scientists, engineers, practitioners, etc.

As mentioned above, global warming is one of the major concerns of the human beings in this century. A significant part of global warming comes from the human activities, such as consuming fossil energy sources, e.g., oil, coal, and natural gas. In the solution of global warming, engineering approaches play a key role. These approaches are linked to many areas including energy and environment policies, energy conversion technologies, energy management and conservation, energy saving, energy security, renewable and sustainable energy technologies, emission reduction, sustainable development, pollution control and measures, policy development, global energy stability and sustainability, carbon tax, and waste management. Innovative engineering solutions are needed to reduce the effects of global warming and also to obtain better efficiency, better cost effectiveness, better use of energy and resources, better energy security, better environment, and better sustainability. In this book, several engineering approaches and potential solutions from renewables to hydrogen, including data analysis, modeling, simulation, assessment, optimization studies, that reduce the effects of global warming are discussed in detail.

Incorporated through this book are many wide-ranging practical examples, case studies, and policy and strategy development which provide useful information for practical applications. Complete references are included with each chapter to direct the curious and interested reader to further information.

We hope this volume allows unique solutions for combating global warming to be more widely applied and the benefits of such efforts more broadly derived, so that the future can be made more efficient, clean, and sustainable.

Last, but not the least, we gratefully acknowledge the assistance provided by several individuals, including Dr. Can-Ozgur Colpan, Dr. Anand Joshi, Mr. M. Fatih Orhan, Mr. M. Tolga Balta, Dr. Nirmal Vijay Gnanapragasam in reviewing and revising several chapters, checking for consistency, and finalizing them for publication.

Ibrahim Dincer Adnan Midilli Arif Hepbasli T. Hikmet Karakoc


1. Global Warming - Where Is the Cure? 1

2. On the Principles of Thermodynamics - Effects on the Environment, Global Warming, and Sustainability 47

3. Role of Renewable Energy in Sustainable Development 71

4. Residential Solar Power Generation Systems for

Better Environment 89

5. Hydrogen Production from Ammonia as an Environmentally Benign Solution for Vehicles 109

6. Environmentally Benign Nuclear-Based Hydrogen Production 129

7. Environmental Benefits of Geothermal-Based Absorption

Cooling Systems 147

8. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Landfill Site

Using Various Thermal Systems 161

9. Partial Gasification for CO2 Emissions Reduction 179

10. A Strategic Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Food Industry 197

11. Environmental and Economic Issues from Changing a Major

Fuel Type as Energy Resource in an Industrial City in Korea 211

12. Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine-Powered Cogeneration Systems 225

13. Effects of Fuel Consumption of Commercial Turbofans on Global Warming 241

14. Marnoch Engine Performance for Multiple Pressure Vessel Configurations 255

15. Exergy Analysis of Food Drying Processes 267

16. Carbon Sequestration: A Comparative Analysis 281

17. Coal-Based Hydrogen Production with CO2 Capture in the

Aspect of Clean Coal Technologies 295

18. CO2 Absorption in a Mini-module Membrane Contactor 307

19. CO2 Hydrogenation to Methanol on Cu-ZrO2 Catalysts 315

20. CO2 and SO2 Capture Capability of Two Greek Limestones 329

21. Effect of Oxidative Medium on Removal of Sulfur and Mineral Matter from the Can Lignites 347

22. Biogenic Emission and Essential Oils of Some Eucalyptus

Species: A Comparison Study 357

23. Embodied Carbon: The Concealed Impact of Residential Construction 367

24. Sustainable Construction Practices in Malaysia 385

25. Emission Market at the End of the Commitment Period 399

26. Game Analysis of Kyoto and Post-Kyoto Schemes 407

27. Enterprise Risk Management Perspective 423

28. Environmental Assessment of Solar Heating and Cooling Systems in Kuwait Climate 439

29. Steam Network Optimization by Utilizing Biomass and Solar Energy Sources in an Oil Refinery 455

30. Calculation of Global Solar Radiation Based on Cloud Data for Major Cities of South Korea 467

31. Relationship Between Air Pollutants and Some Meteorological Parameters in Erzurum, Turkey 485

32. Planning for the Impacts of the Caspian Sea Level Rise and Climate Change in the North of Iran 501

33. Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources in Saudi Arabia 511

34. Warming Tendency in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin and Its Influence on West Nile Fever Outbreaks 525

35. Water Management Works in Tarnava River Basin, Romania 535

36. North-South Gap in Wastewater Management: A Comparative Study for Germany and Jordan 545

37. A Pervaporation Application for Treating Methyl tert-Butyl

Ether (MTBE)-Contaminated Water/Wastewater 555

38. Temperature Variations and Their Effects on Rainfall in Nigeria 565

39. Multimedia Pollutant Sources and Their Effects on the Environment and Waste Management Practice in Turkish Shipyards 579

40. Nitrous Oxide Emission from Agricultural Practices in Japan 591

41. Phenological Adaptation of Cereal Weeds to Climate Variations ...601

42. Chemical Characteristics and Source Reconciliation of Organic Aerosols in Algiers City Area 609

43. Removal of Cu2+ and Ni 2+ from Aqueous Solution by Algerian

Clay Materials 621

44. Health Impacts of Heat Waves of 2007 in Hungary - Background and Experiences 629

45. Potential Impact of Climate Change on Pandemic

Influenza Risk 643

Index 659


Nazirah Zainul Abidin, University Science of Malaysia, Malaysia

Aysegul Abusoglu, University of Gaziantep, Turkey

Lena Ahmadi, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Iran

Fuat Tolga Akanlar, Yildiz Technical University, Turkey

Hiroko Akiyama, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Japan

Ahmat Aksakal, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Saudi Arabia

Kamel K. Alzboon, Al-Balqa Applied University, Huson College, Jordan

Faisal M. Al Zawad, Presidency of Meteorology and Environment, Saudi Arabia

A. Özer Arnas, United States Military Academy at West Point, USA

Ferroudja Bali, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie, Algeria

Mustafa T. Balta, Ege University, Turkey

Matthias Barjenbruch, Technician University of Berlin, Germany

Panagiotis Basinas, Chemical Process Engineering Lab, Thessaloniki, Greece

Janos Bobvos, National Institute of Environmental Health, Hungary

Makhlouf Boufatit, USTHB, Algeria

Mustapha Bounechada, Université Ferhat Abbes, Algeria

Angelo Cecinato, Istituto sull'Inquinamento Atmosferico-C.N.R, Italy

Ugur Bugra Celebi, Yildiz Technical University, Turkey

Neslihan Colak, Ege University, Turkey

C. Ozgur Colpan, Carleton University, Canada

Can Coskun, Balikesir University, Turkey

Daniela Curseu, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Romania

Soraya Dib, USTHB, Algeria

Romney B. Duffey, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Canada

Nilufer Durmaz Hilmioglu, Kocaeli University, Turkey

Zafer Erbay, Ege University, Turkey

Mohamed Fenni, Université Ferhat Abbes, Algeria

Yousef Filizadeh, Shahed University, Iran

Yazid Foudil-Cherif, USTHB, Algeria

Adel A. Ghoneim, College of Technological Studies, Kuwait

Nirmal V. Gnanapragasam, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Canada

John R. Grace, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Canada

P. Grammelis, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Greece

Jale Gulen, Yildiz Technical University, Turkey

Feridun Hamdullahpur, Carleton University, Canada

Geoffrey P. Hammond, University of Bath, UK

Arif Hepbasli, Ege University, Turkey

Osita Ibe, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Filiz Içier, Ege University, Turkey

Haruo Imai, Kyoto University, Japan

Ryosuke Ishii, Kyoto University, Japan

Homan Rajabi Islami, Islamic Azad University, Iran

Louise Jalowiecki-Duhamel, Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, France

Craig I. Jones, University of Bath, UK

Anand S. Joshi, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Canada

Ibrahim M. Kadad, College of Technological Studies, Kuwait

S. P. Kaldis, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Greece

Kandil M. Kandil, College of Technological Studies, Kuwait

Mehmet Kanoglu, University of Gaziantep, Turkey

T. Hikmet Karakoc, Anadolu University, Turkey

Ali Khouider, USTHB, Algeria

Aydin Kilic, University of Nigde, Turkey

Christopher J. Koroneos, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

D. Koutsonikolas, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

Ebru Kuzgunkaya, Izmir Institute of Technology, Turkey

Riad Ladji, Centre de Recherche Scientifique et Technique en Analyses PhysicoChimiques, Algeria

Byeong-Kyu Lee, University of Ulsan, S. Korea Kwanho Lee, Ulsan College, S. Korea C. J. Lim, University of British Columbia, Canada I. Marnoch, Marnoch Thermal Power Inc., Canada Brahim Y. Meklati, USTHB, Algeria Adnan Midilli, Nigde University, Turkey

Shin-Ichiro Mishima, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Japan Adel M. Mohammedein, College of Technological Studies, Kuwait G. Naterer, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Canada Kyoung Hwan Noh, University of Ulsan, S. Korea

E. F. Nymphas, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Sevda Ocak, Ataturk University Environmental Problems Research Center, Canada

Zuhal Oktay, Balikesir University, Turkey

Mehmet F. Orhan, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Canada

Anna Paldy, National Institute of Environmental Health, Hungary

M. Hassan Panjeshahi, Sharif University of Technology, Iran

G. Pantoleontos, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Greece

Hung-Suck Park, University of Ulsan, S. Korea

Sohee Park, University of Ulsan, S. Korea

Shlomit Paz, University of Haifa, Israel

Simon Perry, University of Manchester, UK

Monica Popa, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Cluj-Napoca, Romania Ramona Ratiu, Dimitrie Cantemir University, Romania Bale V. Reddy, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Canada Marc A. Rosen, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Canada Dimitrios C. Rovas, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece G. P. Sakellaropoulos, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece Dana Sirbu, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Romania George Skodras, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece Adam Smolinski, Central Mining Institute, Poland Victor Sorocovschi, Dimitrie Cantemir University, Romania Ioan Stoian, IPA S.A. R&D Institute, Romania Sema Tulbentci, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey F. Sezer Turalioglu, Ataturk University, Turkey Onder Turan, Anadolu University, Turkey

Nurten Vardar, Yildiz Technical University, Turkey Tony Verrelli, Cleanfield Energy, Inc., Canada Mihai Voda, Dimitrie Cantemir University, Romania

William Robert Wagar, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Canada J. Weston, Marnoch Thermal Power Inc., Canada

Kazuyuki Yagi, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Japan

Noureddine Yassaa, USTHB, Algeria

Ahmet E. Yildirim, Sem Ltd, Turkey

Ayse Kucuk Yilmaz, Anadolu University, Turkey

Hochun Yoo, University of Ulsan, S. Korea

Calin Zamfirescu, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Canada Kamran Zolfinejad, Guilan Department of Environment, Iran

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