Results and Discussion

In this study, we have presented optimization analysis results of a high-bypass turbofan engine for minimizing specific fuel consumption according to decision variables such as the fan pressure ratio (nf) and the bypass ratio (a) using different fuels. In this regard, upper and lower limits of nf and a were determined, while engine design-point parameters were identified such as in Tables 13.1-13.3. It can be shown that some computer experiment results of TURBOGENf for three different fuel usages are summarized in Table 13.6 for the values of 1.2 <nf < 2, 2 <a< 8, and 23,000 <hPR- (kJ/kg) < 120,000.

Oil resourse

Oil resourse

NOx SOx

Particulates

Fig. 13.5 Kerosene usage chain with indications of inputs and outputs including environmental impacts (modified from Koroneos et al., 2007).

NOx SOx

Particulates

Fig. 13.5 Kerosene usage chain with indications of inputs and outputs including environmental impacts (modified from Koroneos et al., 2007).

According to the values in Table 13.6, the specific fuel consumption is lower for hydrogen-fueled engine than JP-5- and JP-8-fueled engine because hydrogen has higher fuel heating value than the others. Moreover it was observed that the fuel heating value was a very effective parameter on specific fuel consumption surface shape in this study. In Fig. 13.4, hydrogen's specific fuel consumption surface is sharply decreased at optimum point (i.e., nf=2 and 0=8 for this computer experiment) than the JP-5 and JP-8s' surfaces (optimum points for JP-5 and JP8 are nf=1.8 and a=8, respectively). Figure 13.6 shows cycle design point of some modern commercial engines used in long and middle range aircraft. Selected engine are V2500-A5, CFM56-5C4, RB211-524H, Trent890, PW2040, CFM56-7B26, CF6-80C2, and Trent500 (Aviationnow, 2007; CFM56, 2007; Janes, 2007; RollsRoyce, 2007). It can be easily shown that real engine values can be yielded in optimization solution space in this chapter.

Bypass Ma a

Bypass Ma

A V2500-A5, OCFM56-5C4, V RB211-524H, □ TjSIiW 0 PW2040, GCFM56-7B26, ® CF6-80C2,

Fig. 13.6 Parametric design points of some modern commercial turbofan engines in TURBOGENf.

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