Results and Discussion 4431 Characterization of temperature

The temperature data of the previous years are summarized in Table 44.1. By using the temperature data of the outskirt measuring site of Budapest (Pestszent-lorinc): summer mean temperature was the highest in the year of 2003 concerning the last 5 years, from 2005 the mean temperature showed a slight increase and in

2007 its value was close to that of 2003. Maximum temperature (41°C) was the highest in 2007 (highest ever recorded in Budapest). Days with daily mean temperature over 30°C were recorded for the first time in Hungary also in the year of 2007. The number of heat waves (when daily mean temperature exceeded 25°C at least on three consecutive days) and the number of days during the heat wave were the most in the last 2 years (5 and 3, respectively, 30 and 19 days).

Table 44.1 Summer temperature and related data in Budapest 2003-2007.

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Summer mean temperature (°C)

23.6

20.8

20.5

21.5

23.3

Summer maximum temperature (°C)

39

34

35

37

41

Number of days with mean temperature. <25 °C

44

82

78

51

46

Number of days with mean temperature. >25 °C

35

8

9

30

29

Number of days with mean temperature. >27 °C

13

2

5

11

12

Number of days with mean temperature. >30 °C

0

0

0

0

5

Number of heat waves

2

1

1

5

3

Number of days of heat waves

11

4

5

30

19

Concerning time series of temperature, long lasting heat periods occurred in the second half of July, there was a heat wave in nearly each year in this period. There were more heat waves in warmer years; however, the number of heat waves is defined by the distribution of hot days. In the warmest year in 2003, there were less extreme hot days than in the years with lower summer mean temperature of 2006 and 2007.

Comparing the temperature data of the outskirt (Pestszentlorinc) and the downtown in 2007, no difference could be observed in the daytime maximum temperatures, for the whole summer period the difference was only 0.2°C for the outskirt station. However, the difference was higher in the minimum temperatures, the downtown minimum temperature was by 1.2°C higher on average than in the outskirt. The biggest difference was recorded during the hottest days of the heat wave. Due to the different variation in daily temperature, the summer mean temperature was by 0.5°C higher, it was 23.8°C measured in the downtown. During the 5 days of the first heat wave the daily maximum temperature was 35°C; the mean was 25.9°C. During the 10 days period of the July heat wave the daily maximum temperature was over 40°C, the mean was 29.9°C. Within the 10 days period, daily mean temperature was over 30°C for 5 days. The highest minimum temperature was measured on July 20 (24°C), the highest mean (32°C) and daily maximum temperature (41°C) were recorded on the following day, on July 21. During the 4-day-long heat wave in August the daily maximum temperature was 35°C and the mean of the 4 days' temperature was 27°C.

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