There are two types of protection options that need to be considered. The first is the maintenance of existing natural protection systems such as sand dunes, beaches, and vegetation. This form of protection is vital at the Anzali Lagoon. It is recommended that ongoing maintenance programs such as dune restoration, vegetation control, and beach renourishment should be enhanced or implemented now in all of these areas before costly or irreversible losses occur. The second type of protection option is longer term physical engineering works to upgrade existing structures or construct new ones in high-risk areas. Existing structures which will require upgrading at some time after 2009 in order to maintain the current level of protection include the tidal gates, and protection walls around some parts of the Anzali Lagoon. Possible new protection works that will need to be considered in the future include tidal gates on some other parts of the Lagoon (more than four that we did in past). However, before any of the longer term protection options are considered, it is recommended that the City Council undertake a cost-benefit analysis of implementing these options against the alternative options of do nothing and planned retreat. As well as economics, this analysis should also consider the environmental and social implications of the different options.
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